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Table 2 Intensity of lesions (HE) and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) for NDV nucleoprotein in selected organs by days post infection (dpi). BHI-infected group did not present any lesions

From: Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

   rZJ1-GFP rZJ1-IL2
Organs DPI 3 4 5 3 4 5
Eyelid HE +++ +++ + +++ +++ +++
IHC ++ +++ ++ ++ ++ +
Spleen HE ++ ++++ +++++ ++ ++ ++
IHC ++ +++ + + - -
Thymus HE - +++ +++ - + +++
IHC - +++ ++ + + -
Bursa of Fabricius HE + +++ +++ + +++ +++
IHC + +++ ++ - + -
Cecal Tonsils HE + +++ +++ + ++ +
IHC + +++ ++ + + -
Lung HE - ++ ++ - - -
IHC - - - - - -
Heart HE - + - - - -
IHC - - - - - -
Brain HE - + + - + +
IHC - - - - - -
  1. Histological grading
  2. Eyelid: + presence of severe edema, which expands the submucosa; ++ multifocal inflammatory infiltrate; +++ coalescing / diffuse inflammatory infiltrate
  3. Thymus: lymphoid depletion and apoptosis / necrosis of the thymic cortex, + < 20 %; ++ 26 to 50 %; +++ > 50 %
  4. Cecal tonsil and Bursa: lymphoid depletion / necrosis, + < 20 %, ++ 26 to 50 %; +++ > 50 %
  5. Spleen: prominent macrophages surrounding the penicillary arteries, +; confluent Schweigger-Seidel sheaths, ++; lymphoid depletion and apoptosis +++; diffuse necrosis and fibrin exudation ++++
  6. Brain: vascular reactivity, +; perivascular mononuclear cuffing ++
  7. Immunohistochemical grading
  8. - = no IHC signal present
  9. + = rare cells in the section are positive on IHC
  10. ++ = positive cells seen, <50 % of all high power fields (HPF)
  11. +++ = positive signal seen in > 50 % of HPF