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Table 1 Summary of the histopathological lesion changes in the small intestines sampled from each experimental group

From: Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

Experimental groups Lesion scorea, b
Duodenum Jejunum Ileum
Mock-inoculated & mock-treated 0 ± 0.00 0 ± 0.00 0 ± 0.00
400 mg GUE treated 0 ± 0.00 0 ± 0.00 0 ± 0.00
Virus-inoculated + mock-treated 3.82 ± 0.06 3.09 ± 0.05 2.95 ± 0.10
Virus-inoculated + 100 mg GUE treated 3.18 ± 0.03*** 2.86 ± 0.30 2.80 ± 0.06
Virus-inoculated + 200 mg GUE treated 2.91 ± 0.01*** 2.83 ± 0.01 2.77 ± 0.03*
Virus-inoculated + 400 mg GUE treated 1.58 ± 0.08*** 1.54 ± 0.02*** 1.50 ± 0.05***
  1. a The intestinal changes are scored according to the average villi/crypt (V/C) ratio plus the grade of epithelial cell desquamation, which is measured as follows: V/C ratio, 0 = normal; (V/C ≥6:1), 1 = mild; (V/C = 5.0 – 5.9:1), 2 = moderate; (V/C = 4.0 – 4.9:1), 3 = marked; (V/C = 3.0 – 3.9:1), 4 = severe; (V/C ≤3.0:1), and desquamation grade, 0 = normal (no desquamation), 1 = mild (a few desquamated cells of tip villous epithelium), 2 = moderate (desquamation of upper villous epithelium), 3 = marked (desquamation of lower villous epithelium), 4 = severe (desquamation of crypt epithelium).
  2. b Values are mean ± S.D. (n=3). The asterisk indicate significant differences (*p<0.05; *** p<0.001) compared to the positive control.