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Table 2 Current knowledge on lipopolysaccharides and HIV-infection

From: The role of lipopolysaccharide as a marker of immune activation in HIV-1 infected patients: a systematic literature review

Accepted statements concerning LPS Main articles
1) Plasma values of LPS reflect microbial translocation Jiang et al. [10], Ancuta et al. [7], Brenchley et al [2].
2) LPS is a marker of cellular activation, and probably of T-cell activation Hunt et al. [13], Jiang et al. [10]
3) Plasma values of LPS in HIV-infected patients derive from gut modification, which is largely dependent on mucosal cytokines Epple et al. [8]
4) LPS levels generally decrease after initiation of cART, but rarely to the same values as in healthy subjects Jiang et al. [10], Baroncelli et al. [6]
Aspects of LPS that remain to be explained
1) Is microbial translocation a cause or a consequence of cellular activation?
2) Is gut disruption completely reversible after initiating cART?
3) Does LPS play a key role in virologically controlled patients with blunted CD4 cell gain?