Levels of relevant cytokines in LF pathogenesis. Serum levels of IL-8, Il-6, IL-10, and MIP-1β showed significant differences between LF NF and LF F patients on admission. For LF NF patients, IL-8 levels were significantly reduced when compared to LF F, normal, and LF FU subjects. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were recorded in LF F patients, but were significantly lower in LF NF subjects. MIP-1β was significant reduced in LF NF only when compared to LF F patients. Interferon-γ was significantly higher for fatal LF patients than normal donors and follow-up controls, but IFN-γ levels did not differ between fatal and nonfatal LF patients. Similarly, IL12p70 levels were significantly elevated in LF F when compared to normal donors, but did not differ from the other comparison groups. CD40L was significantly reduced in LF NF when compared with normal controls, but not in LF F. Cytokine levels were relatively similar between LF NF and NL FI IgM+ groups, with the exception of MIP-1β, which was elevated in the later cohort. Outliers are denoted with red asterisks (*). Significant p values for pairwise comparisons are denoted as * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; and *** p < 0.001.