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Table 2 Outcomes of IN instillations of three different H5N1 influenza viruses in ferrets.

From: Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1)

Virus Dosea
(TCID50 units/ferret)
Clinical signs Inactivity indexe Neurologic signs and related observations Lethalityh Virus titeri Isolation of H5N1 from rectal swab specimens on indicated day postinfection
   Maximum weight lossb(%) Weight at terminationc(%) Maximum T increased(°C)     Nasal washes on indicated day postinfection   
         day 3 day 5 day 3 day 5
VN/04 4.9 × 101 -4.21 -3.71 1.5 2 None observed 12(t) 2 2 + +
  4.9 × 101 -20.03 -20.03 1.6 4 Ataxiaf; shaking of head 12(e) 1 - + +
  4.9 × 101 NA +9.68 NA 2 None observed 12(t) - - - -
  4.9 × 102 -2.36 -2.36 2.0 2 None observed 12(t) 2.9 3 + +
  4.9 × 102 -9.18 -9.18 1.4 2 Ataxia 7(e) 1.9 3 + +
  4.9 × 103 -0.78 +1.82 1.3 2 None observed 12(t) 1.9 1.5 + +
  4.9 × 103 -3.85 +5.20 0.7 2 None observed 12(t) 2.9 1.9 + +
  4.9 × 104 -21.64 -21.64 2.0 4 Ataxia; convulsionsg 5(e) 4 4 + +
  4.9 × 104 -12.16 -12.16 3.0 2 Ataxia; convulsions 5(e) 4 3 + +
MO/05 4.9 × 101 -1.23 -0.82 1.0 1 None observed Non-lethal 3.9 2.9 + +
  4.9 × 101 -4.95 No change 2.3 1 None observed Non-lethal 6.9 5.9 NDj +
  4.9 × 101 -15.57 -10.75 2.4 2 None observed Non-lethal 3 3 + +
  4.9 × 102 -3.99 +0.59 0.8 2 None observed Non-lethal 4 5.9 + +
  4.9 × 102 -3.79 -2.01 1.4 1 None observed Non-lethal 4 4 + +
  4.9 × 103 -5.64 -3.88 1.2 2 None observed Non-lethal 7 8 + +
  4.9 × 103 -3.86 -2.45 1.1 2 None observed Non-lethal 4 3.9 + +
  4.9 × 104 -13.58 -7.04 1.7 2 None observed Non-lethal 6 4.7 + ND
  4.9 × 104 -12.85 -0.58 1.8 2 None observed Non-lethal 6 5 + +
IQ06 4.9 × 101 -7.28 +3.64 0.4 1 None observed Non-lethal 4 3 - -
  4.9 × 101 -0.24 +2.87 1.6 1 None observed Non-lethal 1.9 1.9 - -
  4.9 × 101 -0.59 +3.4 2.0 1 None observed Non-lethal 3 1.9 - -
  4.9 × 102 -1.0 +3.39 1.0 2 None observed Non-lethal 1.9 1.9 - -
  4.9 × 102 -2.85 -1.83 1.9 2 None observed Non-lethal 2 1.9 - -
  4.9 × 103 -0.96 +0.24 1.9 2 None observed Non-lethal 2.9 5 - -
  4.9 × 103 -1.2 -1.2 2.1 1 None observed Non-lethal 6 7 - ND
  4.9 × 104 -5.4 -5.44 2.1 2 None observed Non-lethal 6 5 - -
  4.9 × 104 -1.16 -1.05 1.8 2 None observed Non-lethal 6 6 - -
  1. aBased on TCID50 in Mv1-Lu cells.
  2. b,cCompared to body weight at day 0.
  3. dCompared to baseline temperature.
  4. eHighest inactivity index value in one observation prior to death or euthanasia.
  5. fAtaxia; incoordination and unsteadiness.
  6. gConvulsions; involuntary muscular contractions.
  7. hLethality; Day ferret euthanized (e) for humanitarian reasons or terminated (t) at end of study
  8. iValues for each animal are expressed as virus titers (log10 TCID50/mL) obtained using Mv1 Lu cells.
  9. jND; Not determined due to destruction of the cellular monolayer by another virus.