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Table 1 Detection of IBV in CAM and chicken embryo.

From: Immunohistochemistry for detection of avian infectious bronchitis virus strain M41 in the proventriculus and nervous system of experimentally infected chicken embryos

Sample No. Time after inocul ation (h PI) Embryo status Results of Immunohistochemistry Virological findings‡ (TCID50/ml)
1 24 Dead CAM - 0
2 24 Dead CAM + 104.5
3 24 Dead CAM + 104.5
4 41 Dead CAM + 104
5 41 Dead CAM + 103
    Gizzard (smooth muscle, vasculature) ++  
    Heart (vasculature) ++  
    Kidney (glomerular tufts) ++  
    Liver (Kupffer cells) ++  
    Lung (vasculature) ++  
    Proventriculus (smooth muscle) ++  
    Spleen (macrophages) +  
6 48 Alive CAM + 104
    Gizzard ++  
    Heart (vasculature) ++  
    Kidney (glomerular tufts) ++  
    Liver (Kupffer cells) +  
    Lung ++  
    Proventriculus +  
    Spleen (Macrophages) +++  
7 48 Alive CAM + 106
    Nasal mucosa (epithelium) ++  
    Skin (epidermis) +  
8 48 Alive CAM + 105
    Nasal mucosa (epithelium) ++  
    Skin (epidermis) +  
9 65 Dead Brain (neurons) + 105
    CAM: +  
    Eye (sclera) +  
    Gizzard ++  
    Liver +  
    Spinal cord (neurons) +  
    Spleen (Macrophages) ++  
10 72 Alive CAM: + 106
    Gizzard (mucosa) ++  
    Heart (vasculature)  
    Kidney (tubuli) +  
    Nasal cavity (mucosa) +++  
    Skin (epidermis) ++  
    Spinal cord (neurons) +  
    Spleen (macrophages) ++  
11 87 Dead CAM + 105
    Kidney (glomeruli) +  
    Liver (Kupffer cells) +  
    Lungs (epithelium, vasculature) +  
    Nasal cavity (mucosa)++  
    Proventriculus (smooth muscle, mucosa) ++  
    Skin (epidermis) ++  
    Spleen (macrophages) +++  
12 120 Dead Brain (neurons) + 102
    CAM +  
    Nasal cavity (mucosa) ++  
    Proventriculus (mucosa) +  
    Skin (epidermis) ++  
    Trachea (mucosa) ++  
  1. Results of immunohistochemistry and virus reisolation.
  2. Intensity of immunostaining: - (negative = no positive cells), + (weak = small number of positive cells per high power field), ++ (moderate = moderate number of positive cells per HPF), +++ (strong = accentuated staining pattern with large numbers of positive cells per HPF); CAM: chorioallantoic membrane.
  3. ‡Allantoic fluid from respective embryo was titrated in chicken embryo kidney cell culture and virus titter was expressed as TCID50.