9AA inhibits HIV-1 viral replication in PBMCs. Phytohemagglutinin-activated PBMCs were kept in culture for 2 days prior to infection. Isolation and treatment of PBMCs were performed by following the guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control. Approximately 5 × 106 PBMCs were infected with pNL4 (MOI: 1.0). 9AA treatment (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 uM) was performed immediately after the addition of fresh medium. (A) Samples were collected every 6th day and stored at -20°C for RT assays. (B) Cells were also counted (~100/date) for viability using trypan blue staining.