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Table 1 Amino acid changes in H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 viruses between seasons *

From: The evolution of human influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006: A complete genome study

H3 N2 H1 N1
Amino acid 1999–00 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 Amno acid 1999–00 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 H1N2 Amino acid H3 no. 2000–01 2004–05 2005–06 H1N2 Amino acid N2 no. 2000–01 2004–05 2005–06
5 V G G G G G 18 A   S(A) A(S) S S   43 53 L(R) L L L 15 Pa 15 V/I I I
25 L   I(L) I I I 19 T        47 56 I(T) I I I 23 23 M/I M M
33 H Q Q Q Q Q 23 L   F(L) L(F) F F   57 66 V(I) I I I 45 Pb 49 H/Y H H
45 c S    I(S)    24 M       T 69 Cb 78 L(S) L L L 48 52 I(V) I I
50 c R   G(R) G(E) G G 30 V   I(V) V(I) I I   71 80 I(F) I I I 52 56 R/K R R/K
56 H   H(Y)     40 Y    H(Y)     80 88 V(A) V V V 59 63 S/R S S
75 E H   Q(H) Q Q Q 42 C   F(C) C(F) F F   86 93 E(K) E E E 64 68 H/Q H H
83 E E   K(E) K K K 44 S      S(P)   89 96 T    A(T) 75 79 V(I) V V
92 E T K K K K K 65 I I(T)       94 100 Y   H   81 Pc 81 T/P T T
106 A V A(V)     93 N    N(D) D S(N/D)   120 124 D(E/G) E E E 83 83 V/M V V
112 V     I(V) V(I) 143 G   V(G) G(V) V V   130 134 -(K) - - - 93 93 S/P S S
126 a N    D(N)    150 H      H(G)   133 136 S(T) S S S 94 94 I   I/V
128 b T   A(T)     172 K R K(R) R(K)     146 149 R(K) R R R 95 95 S/R S S
131 a A   T(A) T T T 194 V      V(I)   153 Sb 156 G(E) G G G 149 149 V(I) V V
144 a I D N(D) N(D) N N 199 b E    K K K K 163 Sa 166 K(M) K K K 155 155 Y/F Y Y
145 a K     S/N N 216 G   V(G) G(V) V V   166 Ca1 169 V(A) A A A 173 172 K/R K K
155 b H   T(H) T T T 221 b K K(N)    K(D/E) E   168 171 N(K) N N N 188 Pd 187 M/L M M
156 b Q   H(Q) H H H 258 E       K 170 Ca1 173 E(G) E E E 220 219 K K(E) K
159 b Y    Y(F) F F 265 T I   T(I) I(T)    175 177 L    I 222 221 Q(R) R R
164 L L(Q)      267 L T T T T T T 179 181 V   V(I)   249 Pf 248 G/R G G
173 D K     E(K) E(K) 307 V   I(V) V(I) I I   183 186 P(S) P P P 254 253 K/R K K
186 b S G G G G G 310 Y      Y(H)   185 188 I(M) I I I 262 261 K/R K K
188 b D     D(Y)   329 c N     N(T) N(D)   187 190 D(N) D D D 270 269 N/D N N
189 b S    S(N) N N 332 c S F S(F) F(S)     190 Sb 193 A    T 274 273 F/Y F F
193 b S      F(S) 370 c L      S(L)   191 194 L(I) L L L 332 Pi 332 E K K
199 S      S(P) 372 S     S(L) S(L)   194 197 T(K) T T T 344 Pj 347 D(N) D D
202 V   I(V) I I I 385 a K   N(K) K(N) N N   202 205 V(L) V V V 352 Pk 355 K/R K K
222 W   R(W) R R R 392 a I I(T)       215 218 A    T 364 367 S(N) S S
225 G   D(G) D D N(D) 393 a N   N(K)      237 Ca1 240 G   G/R   389 Pm 397 M/V V V
226 D V     I I 399 a D E D(E) E(D)     239 242 T(S) T T T 396 Pm 399 I/M I I
227 D S    S(P) P P 401 a G       D 252 255 W R R W 418 418 I/M I I
271 N D D D D D 431 K       N 253 256 Y F F Y 432 Pn 432 R(K) R R
304 c A A/P A(P)     432 Q E Q(E) E E E   267 269 T(I) T T T 450 450 N D D
347 V M V(M)     437 L W L(W) W(L)     271 273 P(S) P P P 452 452 D/E D D
361 T     I I          273 275 D(G) D D D      
375 N     D(N) D(N)          310 312 A(T) A A A      
386 E   G(E) G G G          315 317 V A V V      
450 R      R/K          321 323 I(V) I I I      
452 R K K K K K          345 347 V(I) V V V      
479 G   E(G)             382 384 V(I) V V V      
529 V I V(I)             398 400 N S N N      
530 V   A(V) A A A(V)          451 453 S(T) S S S      
                473 475 N D D N      
                491 493 E(K) E E E      
                506 508 E    D      
                510 511 V(I) V V V      
  1. * Amino acids in brackets indicate less than half but more than two substitutions at the given amino acid position within a season. A single amino acid change in one position is not shown. Amino acids separated by '/' indicate equal substitutions of either amino acid at the given position. Letters in upper case above an amino acid indicate the antigenic site location of the residue. In N1 the upper case letter 'P' stands for phylogenetically important region (PIR) and the following letters indicate the actual PIR.