Protective efficacy of the vaccines in a guinea pig model when administered by different routes, as evaluated by index of infection (A; the number of organs and lymph nodes from which Brucella was isolated) and effectiveness of vaccination (B). The guinea pig were immunized with mono- and bivalent vaccine formulations of the subtypes Н5N1 or H1N1 by prime-boost intranasal (i.n.), conjunctival (c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccination 28 days apart, and with B. abortus 19 by single s.c. vaccination. Guinea pigs of the negative control groups were obtained s.c. of PBS. * P < 0.005, ** P < 0.001, *** P < 0.0006 compared to negative control groups. Statistical analysis was performed using a one way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test.