Proportions of macropterous white-backed planthoppers ( Sogatella furcifera ) and female adults in different populations. Samples sizes at 20°C for the viruliferous, non-viruliferous, and control populations were 40, 2, and 28 individuals, respectively; at 25°C were 31, 34, and 38, respectively; and at 28°C were 41, 24, and 36, respectively. Values shown are means ± SE. Different letters above the columns for a given temperature indicate means that differ significantly at the P = 0.05 level by the SNK test. The numbers of surviving nymphs at each instar, as well as the F, df, and P values, are presented below the columns.