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  1. Research

    Association between sensitivity of viral thymidine kinase-associated acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 and virulence

    Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant (ACVr) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections are concern in immunocompromised patients. Most clinical ACVr HSV-1 isolates have mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (vTK) g...

    Natsumi Omura, Hikaru Fujii, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Shizuko Harada, Takuya Inagaki, Miho Shibamura, Haruko Takeyama and Masayuki Saijo

    Virology Journal 2017 14:59

    Published on: 21 March 2017

  2. Short report

    Identification of Two novel reassortant avian influenza a (H5N6) viruses in whooper swans in Korea, 2016

    On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identif...

    Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S. Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman and Weonhwa Jheong

    Virology Journal 2017 14:60

    Published on: 21 March 2017

  3. Research

    Human rotavirus strains circulating in Venezuela after vaccine introduction: predominance of G2P[4] and reemergence of G1P[8]

    Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe childhood diarrhea worldwide. Despite Venezuela was among the first developing countries to introduce RV vaccines into their national immunization schedules, R...

    Esmeralda Vizzi, Oscar A. Piñeros, M. Daniela Oropeza, Laura Naranjo, José A. Suárez, Rixio Fernández, José L. Zambrano, Argelia Celis and Ferdinando Liprandi

    Virology Journal 2017 14:58

    Published on: 21 March 2017

  4. Research

    Genomic organization and recombination analysis of a porcine sapovirus identified from a piglet with diarrhea in China

    Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. To date, both intra- and inter-genogroup recombinant strains have been reported in many countrie...

    Jingjiao Li, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Tingting Zhao, Yi Li, Jing Jiang, Xiangqian Yu, Zhibo Guo, Li Cui and Xiuguo Hua

    Virology Journal 2017 14:57

    Published on: 16 March 2017

  5. Research

    A novel benzo-heterocyclic amine derivative N30 inhibits influenza virus replication by depression of Inosine-5’-Monophospate Dehydrogenase activity

    Influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. Host inosine-5’- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target ...

    Jin Hu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Dajun Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Jiandong Jiang and Yuhuan Li

    Virology Journal 2017 14:55

    Published on: 15 March 2017

  6. Research article

    Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in South Korea between 2012 and 2014

    National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viru...

    Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-NA Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee and Jae-Hong Kim

    Virology Journal 2017 14:54

    Published on: 14 March 2017

  7. Research

    Muscovy duck reovirus σNS protein triggers autophagy enhancing virus replication

    Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in Muscovy ducklings at 10 days old and can persist in an infected flock until the ducklings of 6 weeks old. It shares common physicochemical pr...

    Yijian Wu, Longping Cui, Erpeng Zhu, Wuduo Zhou, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang and Hung-Jen Liu

    Virology Journal 2017 14:53

    Published on: 14 March 2017

  8. Research

    Effect of 48-week pegylated interferon α-2a or nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy on renal function in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Controversy remains as to whether antiviral agents contribute to renal dysfunction in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Thus, the aim of study was to analyze the changes in renal functio...

    Ye Zhang, Wei-Lu Zhang, Xiao-Wen Pang, Lin-Xu Wang, Xin Wei, Chang-Xing Huang, Xue-Fan Bai, Shuai Han, Lin-Na Liu and Jian-Qi Lian

    Virology Journal 2017 14:49

    Published on: 9 March 2017

  9. Case report

    Isolation and genetic characterization of a novel 2.2.1.2a H5N1 virus from a vaccinated meat-turkeys flock in Egypt

    Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades....

    Ahmed H. Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Timm C. Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Hafez M. Hafez and Elsayed M. Abdelwhab

    Virology Journal 2017 14:48

    Published on: 9 March 2017

  10. Research

    Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus infections and their clinical relevance in Egyptian leukemic pediatric patients

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are environmental risk factors affecting the outcome of cancer due to an impairment in the cell-mediated immunity. Therefore, this study aime...

    Samah Aly Loutfy, Maha A. Abo-Shadi, Mohamed Fawzy, Mohamed El-Wakil, Shimaa A. Metwally, Manar M. Moneer, Nasra F. Abdel Fattah, Sara Kassem and Ahmed Elgebaly

    Virology Journal 2017 14:46

    Published on: 6 March 2017

  11. Short report

    The intranasal adjuvant Endocine™ enhances both systemic and mucosal immune responses in aged mice immunized with influenza antigen

    Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immu...

    Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg and Anna-Karin Maltais

    Virology Journal 2017 14:44

    Published on: 3 March 2017

  12. Research

    Assessment of contemporary genetic diversity and inter-taxa/inter-region exchange of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 in wild birds sampled in North America

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread...

    Andrew M. Ramey, Iryna V. Goraichuk, Joseph T. Hicks, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Rebecca L. Poulson, David E. Stallknecht, Justin Bahl and Claudio L. Afonso

    Virology Journal 2017 14:43

    Published on: 3 March 2017

  13. Research

    Identification of host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine strain

    The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structura...

    Qian Wang, Yanwei Li, Hong Dong, Li Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Xufu Yang, Zhijun Tian and Xuehui Cai

    Virology Journal 2017 14:39

    Published on: 22 February 2017

  14. Research

    Detection and genome characterization of four novel bat hepadnaviruses and a hepevirus in China

    In recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for thes...

    Bo Wang, Xing-Lou Yang, Wen Li, Yan Zhu, Xing-Yi Ge, Li-Biao Zhang, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Claus-Thomas Bock and Zheng-Li Shi

    Virology Journal 2017 14:40

    Published on: 22 February 2017

  15. Research

    C-terminal region of apoptin affects chicken anemia virus replication and virulence

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) causes anemia and immune suppression, which are important diseases in the poultry industry. CAV VP3, also referred as ‘apoptin’, has been shown to selectively kill tumor cells, raisi...

    Yongqiang Wang, Xiuqing Song, Honglei Gao, Xiaoyan Wang, Yonghao Hu, Yulong Gao, Xiaole Qi, Liting Qin, Huan Lin, Li Gao, Shuai Yao, Chunyan Han, Xiaomei Wang and Hualan Chen

    Virology Journal 2017 14:38

    Published on: 21 February 2017

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