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  1. Approximately 15% of human cancers are attributed to viruses. Numerous studies have shown that high-risk human polyomaviruses (HR-HPV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) are two human tumor viruses associate...

    Authors: Kashif Rasheed, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson and Ugo Moens
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:139
  2. The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic global phenomenon, affecting human life in a way unseen since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Effective management of this threat requires halting transmission, a strategy ...

    Authors: Majid Mahmood, Noor-ul-ain Ilyas, Muhammad Faraz Khan, Muhammad Naseem Hasrat and Nicholas Richwagen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:138
  3. All commercial Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays use a combination of recombinant antigens to detect antibody response. Antibody responses to individual antigenic regions (core, NS3/4 and NS5) used ...

    Authors: Xinyi Jiang, Le Chang, Ying Yan, Huimin Ji, Huizhen Sun, Fei Guo and Lunan Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:137
  4. The persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the body fluids of patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may increase the potential risk of viral tr...

    Authors: Farahnaz Joukar, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi, Mahmoud Khoshsorour, Sonbol Taramian, Lida Mahfoozi, Heydar Ali Balou, Alireza Jafarinezhad, Aydin Pourkazemi, Ezat Hesni, Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad, Mohammad Shenagari, Issa Jahanzad, Mohammadreza Naghipour, Saman Maroufizadeh and Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:134
  5. Investigation of human enterovirus (EV) in diarrheic fecal specimens is valuable to address EV diversity circulating worldwide. However, the detection of EV strains exclusively in fecal specimens must be inter...

    Authors: Adriana Luchs
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:148

  6. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) gene and clinical severity of enterovirus (EV)-71 associated hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD).

    Authors: Xia Wang, Hong Liu, Ying Li, Rui Su, Yamin Liu and Kunyan Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:132
  7. Certification of seed potato as free of viruses is essential for stable potato production. Among more than 30 virus species infecting potato, potato leafroll virus (PLRV), potato virus S (PVS), potato virus X ...

    Authors: Nobuya Onozuka, Takehiro Ohki, Norikuni Oka and Tetsuo Maoka
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:131
  8. Since last year, COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel Sars-Cov-2 virus, has been globally spread to all the world. COVID-19 infection among pregnant women has been described. However, transplacental trans...

    Authors: Maria Chiara De Nardo, Anna Rita Bellomo, Francesca Perfetti, Francesco Antonino Battaglia, Miriam Lichtner and Riccardo Lubrano
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:130
  9. Circularization of RNA mediated by association of translation factors and RNA elements in 5′ and 3′ UTRs is a common feature for translation control in eukaryotes. There is no information about translation in ...

    Authors: Ghobad Babaei, Amir Massah and Mina Koohi Habibi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:129
  10. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Dajun Zhang, Bo Yang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Chaochao Shen, Haixue Zheng, Xiangtao Liu and Keshan Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:128

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:69

  11. In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implica...

    Authors: Bandar Alosaimi, Asif Naeem, Maaweya E. Hamed, Haitham S. Alkadi, Thamer Alanazi, Sanaa Saad Al Rehily, Abdullah Z. Almutairi and Adnan Zafar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:127
  12. Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymph...

    Authors: Shi-Wei Yin, Zheng Zhou, Jun-Ling Wang, Yun-Feng Deng, Hui Jing and Yi Qiu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:126
  13. Recent studies suggest that lncRNAs may play significant roles in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, as a special stage of HBV infection, the lncRNA expression in occult HBV infecti...

    Authors: Qingqin Hao, Zheng Wang, Qinghui Wang, Bo Chen, Huizhong Qian, Xiao Liu, Hong Cao, Wei Xia, Jian Jiang and Zhonghua Lu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:125
  14. The vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates, Guarani P1 virus (GP1V) and Passatempo virus (PSTV), were isolated during zoonotic outbreaks in Brazil. Each one of them belongs to two different VACV clades, defined by biolog...

    Authors: Karine Lima Lourenço, Leandro Andrade Chinália, Lethícia Ribeiro Henriques, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues and Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:124
  15. The international SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need to identify new anti-viral drugs for treatment of COVID-19. The initial step to identifying potential candidates usually involves in vitro s...

    Authors: Kexin Yan, Daniel J. Rawle, Thuy T. Le and Andreas Suhrbier
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:123
  16. Using viral metagenomics, viral nucleic acid in 30 respiratory secretion samples collected from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease were investigated. Sequences showing similarity to hu...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Hao Wang, Jie Yang, Jian Zeng and Guang-Ming Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:122
  17. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to many countries around the world. In addition to lung disease, severe cases also displayed varying degrees of liver injury. This articl...

    Authors: Dongdong Yu, Qingru Du, Shengguang Yan, Xu-Guang Guo, Yehao He, Guodong Zhu, Kewei Zhao and Shi Ouyang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:121
  18. Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reve...

    Authors: Baila Shakaib, Tanzeel Zohra, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Bin Shakaib, Amna Ali, Adnan Bashir, Muhammad Salman, Mumtaz Ali khan and Jamil Ansari
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:120
  19. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) which is caused by Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is an acute, contagious disease. In spite of the use of vaccines and elimination projects, BVDV still causes severe economic l...

    Authors: Yaxin Li, Tao Guo, Xiaokui Wang, Wei Ni, Ruirui Hu, Yuying Cui, Taotao Mi and Shengwei Hu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:119
  20. To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically descr...

    Authors: Jiajia Wang, Xinjing Yang, Yongsheng Li, Jian-an Huang, Junhong Jiang and Nan Su
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:117
  21. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic life-threatening viral infection endemic across sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula; however, there is a growing panic of its spread to non-ende...

    Authors: Raymond Tshepiso Makola, Joe Kgaladi, Garland Kgosi More, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Janusz Tadeusz Paweska and Thabe Moses Matsebatlela
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:116
  22. It is important to recognize the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in severe conditions from moderate ones, thus more effective predictors should be developed.

    Authors: Yingjie Qi, Jian-an Jia, Huiming Li, Nagen Wan, Shuqin Zhang and Xiaoling Ma
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:115
  23. The advent of whole genome sequencing has revealed that common laboratory strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have major genetic deficiencies resulting from serial passage in fibroblasts. In particular, tr...

    Authors: Ahmed Al Qaffas, Salvatore Camiolo, Mai Vo, Alexis Aguiar, Amine Ourahmane, Myrna Sorono, Andrew J. Davison, Michael A. McVoy and Laura Hertel
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:112
  24. The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most important contributions to COVID-19 crisis management. With the publication of the first sequences of SARS-CoV-2, several diagnostic PCR assays h...

    Authors: Janine Michel, Markus Neumann, Eva Krause, Thomas Rinner, Therese Muzeniek, Marica Grossegesse, Georg Hille, Franziska Schwarz, Andreas Puyskens, Sophie Förster, Barbara Biere, Daniel Bourquain, Cristina Domingo, Annika Brinkmann, Lars Schaade, Livia Schrick…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:110
  25. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection re...

    Authors: Janina Krambrich, Dario Akaberi, Jiaxin Ling, Tove Hoffman, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom and Åke Lundkvist
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:109
  26. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chuanchuan He, Jianjun Tong, Xueping Zhang, Milikaimu Tuohetiniyazi, Yu Zhang and Youwen Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:108

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:133

  27. Reducing the pool of HIV-1 reservoirs in patients is a must to achieve functional cure. The most prominent HIV-1 cell reservoirs are resting CD4 + T cells and brain derived microglial cells. Infected microglia...

    Authors: Sepideh Saeb, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim, Fadoua Daouad, Kazem Baesi, Olivier Rohr, Clémentine Wallet and Christian Schwartz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:107
  28. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that has limited tissue and species specificity. Due to the persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cell...

    Authors: Ruirui Xu, Pingping Hu, Yuwen Li, Anran Tian, Jun Li and Chuanlong Zhu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:105
  29. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are leading causes of viral severe acute respiratory illnesses in childhood. Both the two viruses belong to the Pneumoviridae family and show ove...

    Authors: John W. Oketch, Everlyn Kamau, James R. Otieno, Anthony Mwema, Clement Lewa, Everlyne Isoe, D. James Nokes and Charles N. Agoti
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:104
  30. The emergence of drug resistance and cross-resistance to existing drugs has warranted the development of new antivirals for Herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Hence, we have designed this study to evaluate the anti...

    Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Saikat De, Alok Kumar Moharana, Tapas Kumar Nayak, Tanuja Saswat, Ankita Datey, Prabhudutta Mamidi, Priyadarsee Mishra, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi and Soma Chattopadhyay
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:103
  31. Although more than a year past since COVID-19 was defined, there is no specific treatment yet. Since COVID-19 management differs over time, it is hard to determine which therapy is more efficacious. In this st...

    Authors: Anıl Ucan, Pamir Cerci, Serdar Efe, Hakan Akgun, Ahmet Ozmen, Aysel Yagmuroglu, Muzaffer Bilgin and Deniz Avci
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:102
  32. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major challenge facing the world. Certain guidelines issued by National Health Commission of the People's Repubilic of China recommend intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...

    Authors: Xiao Hou, Li Tian, Lei Zhou, Xinhua Jia, Li Kong, Yitao Xue, Hao Hao, Xianqing Meng, Feihu Zhang and Xiaobin Dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:101
  33. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most devastating viral diseases for cassava production in Africa and Asia. Accurate yet affordable diagnostics are one of the fundamental tools supporting successful ...

    Authors: Saengsoon Charoenvilaisiri, Channarong Seepiban, Mallika Kumpoosiri, Sombat Rukpratanporn, Nuchnard Warin, Bencharong Phuangrat, Phakamat Chitchuea, Sirima Siripaitoon, Orawan Chatchawankanphanich and Oraprapai Gajanandana
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:100
  34. Sensitive, rapid, and accessible diagnostics continue to be critical to track the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-qPCR is the gold standard test, and comparison of methodologies and reagen...

    Authors: Joel D. Pearson, Daniel Trcka, Suying Lu, Sharon J. Hyduk, Mark Jen, Marie-Ming Aynaud, J. Javier Hernández, Philippos Peidis, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Kin Chan, Jim Woodgett, Tony Mazzulli, Liliana Attisano, Laurence Pelletier, Myron I. Cybulsky, Jeffrey L. Wrana…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:99
  35. In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers hav...

    Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Tehjeeb Noor, Ziaul Haque Munim, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:98
  36. African swine fever (ASF), characterized by acute, severe, and fast-spreading, is a highly lethal swine infectious disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), which has caused substantial economic ...

    Authors: Zhan Gao, Jun-Jun Shao, Guang-Lei Zhang, Su-Dan Ge, Yan-Yan Chang, Lei Xiao and Hui-Yun Chang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:97
  37. Human parvovirus B19V is a DNA virus, and a member of the family Parvoviridae, that causes various clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to persistent infection that is associated with different autoimmune d...

    Authors: Dayakar Seetha, Heera R. Pillai, Sai Ravi Chandra Nori, Sanu Ghosh Kalpathodi, Vineetha P. Thulasi and Radhakrishnan R. Nair
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:96
  38. The early identification of asymptomatic yet infectious cases is vital to curb the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and to control the disease in the post-pandemic era. In this paper, we propose a fast, in...

    Authors: Eva Kriegova, Regina Fillerova, Milan Raska, Jirina Manakova, Martin Dihel, Ondrej Janca, Pavel Sauer, Martina Klimkova, Petra Strakova and Petr Kvapil
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:95
  39. Variations in human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 have been shown to be closely related to the persistence of the virus and the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Long control region (LCR) of HPV ...

    Authors: Zhilin Song, Yanru Cui, Qiufu Li, Junhang Deng, Xianping Ding, Jiaoyu He, Yiran Liu, Zhuang Ju and Liyuan Fang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:94
  40. SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do...

    Authors: Natalie C. Marshall, Ruwandi M. Kariyawasam, Nathan Zelyas, Jamil N. Kanji and Mathew A. Diggle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:93
  41. Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, f...

    Authors: Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr, Heloísa Ihle Giamberardino, Sonia Mara Raboni, Maria Carmo Debur, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira, Fernanda Marcicano Burlandy and Edson Elias da Silva
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:88