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  1. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an essential factor for the development of cervical cancer. HPV18 is the second most common carcinogenic HPV type following HPV16, but the lineages of HPV18 ha...

    Authors: Namhee Kim, Jeong Su Park, Ji Eun Kim, Jae Hyeon Park, Hyunwoong Park, Eun Youn Roh, Jong Hyun Yoon and Sue Shin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:70

    Content type: Short report

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  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancers, causing 270.000 deaths annually worldwide of which 85% occur in developing countries with an increasing risk associated to HIV infection. Th...

    Authors: Samuel Martin Sosso, Michel Carlos Tommo Tchouaket, Joseph Fokam, Rachel Kamgaing Simo, Judith Torimiro, Aline Tiga, Elise Elong Lobe, Georgia Ambada, Achille Nange, Ezechiel Ngoufack Jagni Semengue, Alex Durand Nka, Valère Tala, Collins Chenwi, Aissatou Abba, Aude Christelle Ka’e, Bouba Yagai…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:69

    Content type: Research

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  3. Host shutoff refers to the widespread downregulation of host gene expression and has emerged as a key process that facilitates the reallocation of cellular resources for viral replication and evasion of host a...

    Authors: Tianqiong He, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Shaqiu Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhao, Juan Huang, Di Sun, Sai Mao, Xuming Ou, Yin Wang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:68

    Content type: Review

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  4. Tembusu virus (TMUV), a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus, spreads rapidly between ducks, causing massive economic losses in the Chinese duck industry. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent TM...

    Authors: Yuting Pan, Renyong Jia, Juping Li, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Juan Huang, Shaqiu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Yunya Liu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

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  5. Avian influenza virus infections cause significant economic losses on poultry farms and pose the threat of a possible pandemic outbreak. Routine vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is not recommende...

    Authors: Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Anna Stachyra, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Anna Fogtman, Róża Sawicka, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Agnieszka Sirko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

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  6. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancy remain a main cause of cancer in men and women. Cancer immunotherapy has represented great potential as a new promising cancer therapeutic approach. Here, we re...

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Mir Saeed Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Hassan Dianat-Moghadam, Seyedeh Sara Ghorbanhosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Hossein Keyvani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:64

    Content type: Research

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  7. H6 subtype influenza viruses were prevalent in domestic poultry and wild birds, which also could pose potential threat to humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of H6 subtype viruses in wild bir...

    Authors: Chuanxia Hu, Xiaofang Li, Caihui Zhu, Feng Zhou, Wangjun Tang, Di Wu, Zhihui Li, Lichen Zhou, Jing Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Jie Cui, Tianhou Wang and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:62

    Content type: Research

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  8. Musk deer can produce musk which has high medicinal value and is closely related to human health. Viruses in forest musk deer both threaten the health of forest musk deer and human beings.

    Authors: Qi Liu, Hao Wang, Yu Ling, Shi-Xing Yang, Xiao-Chun Wang, Rui Zhou, Yu-Qing Xiao, Xu Chen, Jie Yang, Wei-Guo Fu, Wen Zhang and Gui-Lan Qi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:61

    Content type: Research

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  9. The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encepha...

    Authors: Mayra Diosa-Toro, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Shelton S. Bradrick and Mariano A. Garcia Blanco

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:60

    Content type: Review

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  10. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and the pestivius virus group. BVDV is responsible for significant economic loss in cattle industry worldwide because of reducing reproductive...

    Authors: Xiaowei Gong, Qiwei Chen and Fuying Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:59

    Content type: Research

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  11. Prophylactic vaccines are critical in preventing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) primarily caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Children aged less than 5 years are especially susceptible to EV...

    Authors: Jiangning Liu, Binbin Zhao, Ling Xue, Jing Wu, Yanfeng Xu, Yongdong Liu and Chuan Qin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:58

    Content type: Research

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  12. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. We previously reported the development and protocol of the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuS...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:57

    Content type: Short report

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  13. The host cell protease TMPRSS2 cleaves the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). Several reports have described resistance of Tmprss2−/− knock-out (KO) mice to IAV infection but IAV of the H2 subtype have n...

    Authors: Ruth Lydia Olga Lambertz, Ingo Gerhauser, Inga Nehlmeier, Sabine Gärtner, Michael Winkler, Sarah Rebecca Leist, Heike Kollmus, Stefan Pöhlmann and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:56

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Hemagglutinin (HA), as the surface immunogenic protein, is the most important component of influenza viruses. Previous studies showed that the stability of HA was significant for HA’s immunogenicity, and many ...

    Authors: Jialing Wu, Yang Wang, Ying Wei, Zhichao Xu, Xin Tan, Zhihui Wu, Jing Zheng, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao and Chunyi Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:55

    Content type: Research

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  15. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a human polyomavirus that establishes a life-long harmless infection in most individuals, with dermal fibroblasts believed to be the natural host cell. However, this virus i...

    Authors: Ibrahim Abdulsalam, Kashif Rasheed, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson, Bernhard Ehlers and Ugo Moens

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:54

    Content type: Research

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  16. There are over 100 known human adenovirus (HAdV) types, which are able to cause a broad variety of different self-limiting but also lethal diseases especially in immunocompromised patients. Only limited inform...

    Authors: Kemal Mese, Oskar Bunz, Sebastian Schellhorn, Wolfram Volkwein, Dominik Jung, Jian Gao, Wenli Zhang, Armin Baiker and Anja Ehrhardt

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:52

    Content type: Short report

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  17. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous γ-herpesvirus related to various types of cancers, including epithelial nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, and lymphoma. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are...

    Authors: Jing Zhang, Xiaohan Li, Jingjin Hu, Pengfei Cao, Qijia Yan, Siwei Zhang, Wei Dang and Jianhong Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:51

    Content type: Review

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  18. Antibody neutralization of cytomegalovirus (CMV) entry into diverse cell types is a key consideration for development of vaccines and immunotherapeutics. CMV entry into fibroblasts differs significantly from e...

    Authors: Ying Qi, Li He, Xiaohong Cui, Laura Hertel, Daniel C. Freed, Tong-Ming Fu, Lawrence M. Kauvar, Michael A. McVoy and Qiang Ruan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:50

    Content type: Short report

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  19. In Raphanus sativus (Japanese radish), strain D8 of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-D8) establishes a systemic infection and induces mild mosaic on upper, non-inoculated leaves, whereas strain Y of CMV (CMV-Y) causes ...

    Authors: Yu Yu Khaing, Yudai Kobayashi and Minoru Takeshita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:49

    Content type: Research

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  20. Cypoviruses (CPVs) are RNA viruses with segmented double-stranded genome and major pathogens of various insects, including economic insects like silkworms and pest insects for agricultural crops and forests. G...

    Authors: Zhendong Zhang, Ning Li, Chengxiang Hou, Kun Gao, Xudong Tang and Xijie Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:48

    Content type: Short report

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  21. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains as one of the major public health problems in the world. Type I interferon (IFN) plays an essential role in antiviral defense by induced expression of a few hundred in...

    Authors: Yujia Li, Min Yao, Xiaoqiong Duan, Haiyan Ye, Shilin Li, Limin Chen, Chunhui Yang and Yongjun Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:47

    Content type: Research

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  22. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection causes an acute enteric tract infectious disease characterized by vomiting, anorexia, dehydration, weight loss and high mortality in neonatal piglets. During PE...

    Authors: Ning Kong, Qiong Meng, Yajuan Jiao, Yongguang Wu, Yewen Zuo, Hua Wang, Dage Sun, Sujie Dong, Huanjie Zhai, Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Hai Yu, Guangzhi Tong, Yongjie Xu and Tongling Shan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:46

    Content type: Research

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  23. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that there is a typo in the title of this article.

    Authors: Zhaoyang Wang, Jiaoyan Jia, Lu Wang, Feng Li, Yiliang Wang, Yuzhou Jiang, Xiaowei Song, Shurong Qin, Kai Zheng, Ju Ye, Zhe Ren, Yifei Wang and Shuhua Qi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:45

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:41

  24. A complete genome sequence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) named as HPV-ujs-21015 was determined by viral metagenomic and PCR methods. The complete genome is 7354 bp in length with GC content of 41.7%, of whic...

    Authors: Yu Ling, Jianqiang Wang, Jun Yin, Jianpu Xu, Yufan Wu, Rui Zhou, Juan Lu, Shixing Yang, Xiaochun Wang, Quan Shen and Wen Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:44

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major human pathogen and member of the Flavivirus genus. Previous studies have identified neutralizing antibodies from Zika patients that bind to quaternary epitopes across neighboring enve...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Henderson, Christina C. Tam, Luisa W. Cheng, Annie Elong Ngono, Anh-Viet Nguyen, Sujan Shresta, Matt McGee, Hal Padgett, Laurence K. Grill and Mikhail Martchenko Shilman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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  26. Squirrels (family Sciuridae) are globally distributed members of the order Rodentia with wildlife occurrence in indigenous and non-indigenous regions (as invasive species) and frequent presence in zoological g...

    Authors: Vanessa Schulze, Peter W. W. Lurz, Nicola Ferrari, Claudia Romeo, Michael A. Steele, Shealyn Marino, Maria Vittoria Mazzamuto, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Kore Schlottau, Martin Beer, Rainer G. Ulrich and Bernhard Ehlers

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:42

    Content type: Research

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  27. Herpes simplex virus 1, an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the Herpesviridae family, spreads to neurons and causes pathological changes in the central nervous system. The purpose of this study was to investig...

    Authors: Zhaoyang Wang, Jiaoyan Jia, Lu Wang, Feng Li, Yiliang Wang, Yuzhou Jiang, Xiaowei Song, Shurong Qin, Kai Zheng, Ju Ye, Zhe Ren, Yifei Wang and Shuhua Qi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:41

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:45

  28. There are few data on the prevalence of acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRs) in Hunan Province, China, that could affect the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Authors: Xiaobai Zou, Jianmei He, Jun Zheng, Roberta Malmgren, Weisi Li, Xiuqing Wei, Guoqiang Zhang and Xi Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:38

    Content type: Research

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  29. Human herpesviruses (HHVs) remain latent after primary infection and can be reactivated in response to immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Little is known about their incidence, potential relationships, risk f...

    Authors: Imene Handous, Bechir Achour, Manel Marzouk, Sana Rouis, Olfa Hazgui, Ines Brini, Abderrahim Khelif, Naila Hannachi and Jalel Boukadida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:37

    Content type: Research

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  30. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is typically evaluated based on the current rate of positivity of anti-HCV antibody; however, HCV RNA positivity is considered the main criterion for antivir...

    Authors: Yurong Li, Lianrong Zhao, Nan Geng, Weijia Zhu, Hongbo Liu and Han Bai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:36

    Content type: Research

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  31. To the best of our knowledgedd, there is currently no case in the literature reporting the comorbidity of Wilson’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), linked through copper.

    Authors: Effrosyni Koutsouraki, Dimitrios Michmizos, Olga Patsi, John Tzartos, Martha Spilioti, Marianthi Arnaoutoglou and Magda Tsolaki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:35

    Content type: Case Report

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  32. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs about 22 nucleotides in length, which play an important role in gene regulation of both eukaryotes and viruses. They can promote RNA cleavage and repress translatio...

    Authors: Lichen Zhang, Jiaqi Yu and Zhijun Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:34

    Content type: Review

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  33. Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV), which belongs to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae, mainly infects solanaceous plants and has caused serious economic losses in Asia and Africa. Tobacco plants inf...

    Authors: Yubing Jiao, Chuantao Xu, Jialun Li, Yong Gu, Chun Xia, Qiang Xie, Yunbo Xie, Mengnan An, Zihao Xia and Yuanhua Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:33

    Content type: Research

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  34. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a primary cause of cervical cancer. Although epidemiologic study revealed that carcinogenic risk differs according to HPV genotypes, the expression patterns of HPV-deriv...

    Authors: Satoshi Baba, Ayumi Taguchi, Akira Kawata, Konan Hara, Satoko Eguchi, Mayuyo Mori, Katsuyuki Adachi, Seiichiro Mori, Takashi Iwata, Akira Mitsuhashi, Daichi Maeda, Atsushi Komatsu, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Katsutoshi Oda, Iwao Kukimoto, Yutaka Osuga…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:32

    Content type: Research

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  35. After viral fusion with the cell membrane, the conical capsid of HIV-1 disassembles by a process called uncoating. Previously we have utilized the CsA washout assay, in which TRIM-CypA mediated restriction of ...

    Authors: Zachary Ingram, Melanie Taylor, Glister Okland, Richard Martin and Amy E. Hulme

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:31

    Content type: Research

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  36. Several reports indicate that a portion (5–10%) of men living with HIV-1 intermittently shed HIV-1 RNA into seminal plasma while on long term effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is highly suggestive o...

    Authors: Samuel Mundia Kariuki, Philippe Selhorst, Jennifer Norman, Karen Cohen, Kevin Rebe, Carolyn Williamson and Jeffrey R. Dorfman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:29

    Content type: Short report

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  37. The detection of antibodies against capripoxvirus has become easier with a commercially available ELISA validated for serum and plasma. In order to explore its suitability for immunological investigations on a...

    Authors: Milovan Milovanović, Vesna Milićević, Sonja Radojičić, Miroslav Valčić, Bernd Hoffmann and Klaas Dietze

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:28

    Content type: Short report

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  38. Dengue virus (DENV) infects hundreds of thousands of people annually in Indonesia. However, DENV sequence data from the country are limited, as samples from outbreaks must be shipped across long-distances to s...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Barbara A. Blacklaws, Benediktus Yohan, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Rahma F. Hayati, Brian Schwem, Edsel M. Salvaña, Raul V. Destura, James S. Lester, Khin S. Myint, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Simon D. W. Frost

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  39. During severe immunosuppression or treatment with specific biological drugs, human polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) may establish a lytic infection in oligodendrocytes, leading to progressive multifocal leukoencephalop...

    Authors: Maria Rosa Ciardi, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Carla Prezioso, Valentina Perri, Patrizia Pasculli, Miriam Lichtner, Gabriella d’Ettorre, Marta Altieri, Antonella Conte, Valeria Pietropaolo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni and Vincenzo Vullo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:23

    Content type: Case Report

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  40. Transfection, the process of introducing purified nucleic acids into cells, and viral transduction, viral-mediated nucleic acid transfer, are two commonly utilized techniques for gene delivery in the research ...

    Authors: Jeffrey Sebrow, Stephen P. Goff and Daniel O. Griffin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:22

    Content type: Short report

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  41. Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a non-enveloped virus that has a single stranded positive sense RNA genome. In a previous study, we showed that miR-876-5p upregulation was observed in the serum of patients wi...

    Authors: Peng Xu, Hwa Xu, Hsu Sheng Cheng, Han-Hsiang Chan and Robert Y. L. Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  42. Standardized and sensitive assays for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) are needed to define universal cutoff for treatment initiation in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. In a context of accre...

    Authors: Maud Salmona, Karl Stefic, Nadia Mahjoub, Flore Sicre de Fontbrune, Sarah Maylin, François Simon, Catherine Scieux, Gérard Socié, Marie-Christine Mazeron and Jérôme LeGoff

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:20

    Content type: Research

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  43. Porcine parvovirus (PPV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are the important etiological agents of swine infectious diseases, resulting in huge economic losses to the Chinese swine industry. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) ha...

    Authors: Hui-Hua Zheng, Lin-Qing Wang, Peng-Fei Fu, Lan-Lan Zheng, Hong-Ying Chen and Fang Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  44. Porcine β-defensin 2 (PBD-2), produced by host cells, is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich cationic peptide with multi-functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that PBD-2 can kill various bacteria, regulate ...

    Authors: Jing Huang, Yanhua Qi, Antian Wang, Chao Huang, Xiao Liu, Xi Yang, Lu Li and Rui Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

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  45. Anhui Province in China is facing a severe HIV epidemic with an increasing number of newly diagnosed cases.

    Authors: Dong Zhang, Jianjun Wu, Yu Zhang, Yuelan Shen, Sheying Dai, Xiaolin Wang, Hui Xing, Jin Lin, Jingwan Han, Jingyun Li, Yizu Qin, Yongjian Liu, Lifeng Miao, Bin Su, Hanping Li and Lin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:17

    Content type: Research

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