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  1. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristic...

    Authors: Samuel T Workenhe, Dorota W Wadowska, Glenda M Wright, Molly JT Kibenge and Frederick SB Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:13

    Content type: Short report

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  2. The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend ha...

    Authors: Jenny Keller, Nicolas Leulliot, Christian Cambillau, Valérie Campanacci, Stéphanie Porciero, David Prangishvili, Patrick Forterre, Diego Cortez, Sophie Quevillon-Cheruel and Herman van Tilbeurgh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:12

    Content type: Research

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  3. Members of the family Iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. Very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host. In the present stu...

    Authors: Heather E Eaton, Julie Metcalf, Emily Penny, Vasily Tcherepanov, Chris Upton and Craig R Brunetti

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:11

    Content type: Research

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  4. Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (genus Begomovirus) are phytopathogens that cause heavy losses to crops worldwide. Efforts to engineer resistance against these viruses are focused mainly on silencing of comple...

    Authors: Muhammad Mubin, Shahid Mansoor, Mazhar Hussain and Yusuf Zafar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:10

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA-containing virus with 4 genes, C, S, X and P. The S gene codes for the surface antigen (HBsAg), which contains the "a" determinant, the main region for induction of a protec...

    Authors: Martha-Eugenia Ruiz-Tachiquín, Hilda-Alicia Valdez-Salazar, Vicencio Juárez-Barreto, Margarita Dehesa-Violante, Javier Torres, Onofre Muñoz-Hernández and Ma-Teresa Alvarez-Muñoz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:6

    Content type: Research

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  6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) exclusively selects and utilizes tRNALys,3 as the primer for initiation of reverse transcription. Several elements within the TΨC stem loop of tRNALys,3 are postulated to be i...

    Authors: Wanfeng Yu, Anna McCulley and Casey D Morrow

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:5

    Content type: Research

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  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) preferentially selects tRNALys,3 as the primer for reverse transcription. HIV-1 can be forced to select alternative tRNAs through mutation in the primer-binding site (PBS) and...

    Authors: Na Ni, Wenqin Xu and Casey D Morrow

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:4

    Content type: Research

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  8. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a major cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sexual acquisition and transmission. In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may int...

    Authors: Jérôme LeGoff, Hicham Bouhlal, Maxime Lecerf, Christophe Klein, Hakim Hocini, Ali Si-Mohamed, Martin Muggeridge and Laurent Bélec

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:2

    Content type: Research

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  9. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus distinguished by its ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the Para...

    Authors: Jared R Patch, Gary Crameri, Lin-Fa Wang, Bryan T Eaton and Christopher C Broder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:1

    Content type: Research

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  10. The genome of coronaviruses contains structural and non-structural genes, including several so-called accessory genes. All group 1b coronaviruses encode a single accessory protein between the spike and envelop...

    Authors: Ronald Dijkman, Maarten F Jebbink, Berry Wilbrink, Krzysztof Pyrc, Hans L Zaaijer, Philip D Minor, Sally Franklin, Ben Berkhout, Volker Thiel and Lia van der Hoek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:106

    Content type: Research

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  11. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can utilize multiple pathways to enter host cells. The factors that determine which route is taken are not clear. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express glycoprotein D (gD)-b...

    Authors: Mark G Delboy, Jennifer L Patterson, Aimee M Hollander and Anthony V Nicola

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:105

    Content type: Research

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  12. HIV-1 entry into cells is a multifaceted process involving target cell CD4 and the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 or CCR5. The lipid composition of the host cell plays a significant role in the HIV fusion process ...

    Authors: Sherimay Ablan, Satinder S Rawat, Mathias Viard, Ji Ming Wang, Anu Puri and Robert Blumenthal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:104

    Content type: Research

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  13. The duration of treatment for HCV infection is partly indicated by the genotype of the virus. For studies of disease transmission, vaccine design, and surveillance for novel variants, subtype-level classificat...

    Authors: Peter T Hraber, William Fischer, William J Bruno, Thomas Leitner and Carla Kuiken

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:103

    Content type: Research

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  14. Matrix protein 2 (M2) is an integral tetrameric membrane protein of influenza A virus (IAV). Its ectodomain (M2e) shows remarkably little diversity amongst human IAV strains. As M2e-specific antibodies (Abs) h...

    Authors: JingQi Feng, Manxin Zhang, Krystyna Mozdzanowska, Darya Zharikova, Henry Hoff, William Wunner, Robert B Couch and Walter Gerhard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:102

    Content type: Research

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  15. The amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLV-A's) are naturally occurring, exogenously acquired gammaretroviruses that are indigenous to the Southern California wild mice. These viruses replicate in a wide ra...

    Authors: Thomas M Howard, Zhijuan Sheng, Mingwu Wang, Yongchun Wu and Suraiya Rasheed

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:101

    Content type: Research

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  16. The antiviral action of interferon alpha targets the 5' untranslated region (UTR) used by hepatitis C virus (HCV) to translate protein by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism. Although this sequenc...

    Authors: Ramesh Prabhu, Robert F Garry and Srikanta Dash

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:100

    Content type: Research

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  17. Despite the continuous shedding of HIV infected blood into the oral cavity and the detectable presence of the AIDS virus at a high frequency, human saliva is reported to inhibit oral transmission of HIV throug...

    Authors: Habtom H Habte, Anwar S Mall, Corena de Beer, Zoë E Lotz and Delawir Kahn

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:99

    Content type: Research

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  18. Little is known at the molecular level concerning the differences and/or similarities between alcohol and hepatitis C virus induced liver disease. Global transcriptional profiling using oligonucleotide microar...

    Authors: Sharon L Lederer, Kathie-Anne Walters, Sean Proll, Bryan Paeper, Shahar Robinzon, Loreto Boix, Nelson Fausto, Jordi Bruix and Michael G Katze

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:98

    Content type: Research

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  19. T-cell activation leads to signaling pathways that ultimately result in induction of gene transcription from the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter. We hypothesized that the IL-2 promoter or its synthetic derivativ...

    Authors: Diana E Jaalouk, Laurence Lejeune, Clément Couture and Jacques Galipeau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:97

    Content type: Research

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  20. Recombination between hepatitis C single stranded RNA viruses is a rare event. Natural viable intragenotypic and intergenotypic recombinants between 1b-1a, 1a-1c and 2k-1b, 2i-6p, respectively, have been repor...

    Authors: Isabelle Moreau, Susan Hegarty, John Levis, Patrick Sheehy, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh and Liam J Fanning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:95

    Content type: Research

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  21. The Z protein is the matrix protein of arenaviruses and has been identified as the main driving force for budding. Both LCMV and Lassa virus Z proteins bud from cells in the absence of other viral proteins as ...

    Authors: Thomas Strecker, Anna Maisa, Stephane Daffis, Robert Eichler, Oliver Lenz and Wolfgang Garten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:93

    Content type: Research

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  22. A major DHF outbreak occurred in Delhi in 1996. Following this another outbreak was reported in the year 2003. In the years 2004 and 2005, though no outbreak was reported, a definitely higher number of samples...

    Authors: Ekta Gupta, Lalit Dar, Geetanjali Kapoor and Shobha Broor

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:92

    Content type: Research

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  23. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, causing widespread chronic infections which are largely uncontrolled by currently available vaccines or other antivir...

    Authors: William A Cafruny, Richard G Duman, Grace HW Wong, Suleman Said, Pam Ward-Demo, Raymond RR Rowland and Eric A Nelson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:90

    Content type: Research

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  24. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a significant public health burden and small animal models are needed to study the pathology and immunobiology of the virus. In effort to develop experimental HCV mouse models, we sc...

    Authors: Susan L Uprichard, Josan Chung, Francis V Chisari and Takaji Wakita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:89

    Content type: Research

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  25. Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vacci...

    Authors: Guiyun Li, Nanhai Chen, Zehua Feng, R Mark L Buller, John Osborne, Tiara Harms, Inger Damon, Chris Upton and David J Esteban

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:88

    Content type: Research

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  26. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. HCV circulates in vivo as a complex population of different but closely ...

    Authors: María P Moreno, Didier Casane, Lilia López and Juan Cristina

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:87

    Content type: Research

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  27. The APOBEC3G protein represents a novel innate defense mechanism against retroviral infection. It facilitates the deamination of the cytosine residues in the single stranded cDNA intermediate during early step...

    Authors: Melanie Kremer, Yasemin Suezer, Yolanda Martinez-Fernandez, Carsten Münk, Gerd Sutter and Barbara S Schnierle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:86

    Content type: Research

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  28. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the oral cavity plays an important role in its horizontal transmission and in causing viral-associated oral diseases such as gingivitis. However, little is currently k...

    Authors: Rong Hai, Alice Chu, Hongjian Li, Sean Umamoto, Paul Rider and Fenyong Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:84

    Content type: Research

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  29. Infections with papillomaviruses induce type-specific immune responses, mainly directed against the major capsid protein, L1. Based on the propensity of the L1 protein to self-assemble into virus-like particle...

    Authors: Stefanie D Roth, Martin Sapp, Rolf E Streeck and Hans-Christoph Selinka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:83

    Content type: Research

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  30. We recently reported the isolation and in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus. These isolates were termed CIMM-HCV and analyzed to establish genotypes and subtypes, which are reported elsewhere. During this an...

    Authors: Dennis Revie, Michael O Alberti, Ravi S Braich, David Bayles, John G Prichard and S Zaki Salahuddin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:82

    Content type: Research

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  31. Isolation and self-replication of infectious HCV has been a difficult task. However, this is needed for the purposes of developing rational drugs and for the analysis of the natural virus. Our recent report of...

    Authors: Dennis Revie, Michael O Alberti, Ravi S Braich, Nickolas Chelyapov, David Bayles, John G Prichard and S Zaki Salahuddin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:81

    Content type: Research

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  32. Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostruc...

    Authors: KT Tsen, Eric C Dykeman, Otto F Sankey, Nien-Tsung Lin, Shaw-Wei D Tsen and Juliann G Kiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:79

    Content type: Research

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  33. Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of...

    Authors: Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Magdy F El-Kady, Brian S Ladman and Jack Gelb Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:78

    Content type: Research

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  34. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) can infect blood cells and thereby may inhibit hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion and differentiation. In this context, it has been discussed if early progenitor cells...

    Authors: Stefanie Thulke, Aleksandar Radonić, Andreas Nitsche and Wolfgang Siegert

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:77

    Content type: Short report

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  35. Epithelial defensins including human β-defensins (hBDs) and α-defensins (HDs) are antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the mucosal defense system. However, the role of defensins in papillomaviru...

    Authors: Kong T Chong, Liangbin Xiang, Xiaohong Wang, Eunjoo L Jun, Long-fu Xi and John M Schweinfurth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:75

    Content type: Research

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  36. Simian-Human immunodeficiency virus is a chimeric virus which, in rhesus macaques (Macacca mulatta) closely imitates immunodeficiency virus infection in human (HIV). A relatively new way to study pathogenesis of ...

    Authors: Erica E Carroll, Rasha Hammamieh, Nabarun Chakraborty, Aaron T Phillips, Stacy-Ann M Miller and Marti Jett

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:74

    Content type: Research

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  37. Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from ...

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Hugot, Angelina Plyusnina, Vincent Herbreteau, Kirill Nemirov, Juha Laakkonen, Åke Lundkvist, Yupin Supputamongkol, Heikki Henttonen and Alexander Plyusnin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:72

    Content type: Research

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  38. There is an urgent need to develop novel approaches to vaccination against the emerging, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Here, we engineered influenza viral-like particles (Flu-VLPs) derived from re...

    Authors: Judit Szécsi, Bertrand Boson, Per Johnsson, Pia Dupeyrot-Lacas, Mikhail Matrosovich, Hans-Dieter Klenk, David Klatzmann, Viktor Volchkov and François-Loïc Cosset

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:70

    Content type: Short report

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