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  1. We describe a novel strategy in which two inhibitors of HIV viral entry were incorporated into a single molecule. This bifunctional fusion inhibitor consists of an antibody blocking the binding of HIV to its c...

    Authors: Erhard Kopetzki, Andreas Jekle, Changhua Ji, Eileen Rao, Jun Zhang, Stephan Fischer, Nick Cammack, Surya Sankuratri and Gabrielle Heilek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:56

    Content type: Research

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  2. PTGS (post-transcriptional gene silencing) is used to counter pathogenic invasions, particularly viruses. In return, many plant viruses produce proteins which suppress silencing directed against their RNA. The...

    Authors: Christelle Siré, Martine Bangratz-Reyser, Denis Fargette and Christophe Brugidou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:55

    Content type: Research

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  3. Open reading frame 58 (ORF58) of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) lies at the 3'end of the Unique long (UL) region and its functional is unknown. In order to clarify whether ORF58 is essential for the growth of VZV, ...

    Authors: Hironori Yoshii, Kay Sadaoka, Masaaki Matsuura, Kazuhiro Nagaike, Michiaki Takahashi, Koichi Yamanishi and Yasuko Mori

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:54

    Content type: Research

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  4. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and causes huge economic losses. This work focus on the Landhi Dairy Colony (LDC), located in the suburbs of Karachi. LDC is the largest Buffalo colony in th...

    Authors: Joern Klein, Manzoor Hussain, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Afzal and Soren Alexandersen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:53

    Content type: Research

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  5. Current methods for dengue virus quantitation are either time consuming, technically demanding or costly. As an alternative, the commercial enzyme immunoassay Platelia™ Dengue NS1 AG (Bio-Rad Laboratories) was...

    Authors: Juan E Ludert, Clemente Mosso, Ivonne Ceballos-Olvera and Rosa M del Angel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:51

    Content type: Research

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  6. Little is known about changes in hepatitis B viral load (HBV DNA) in relation to age in Africa. The aim of this study is to determine the natural course of HBV chronic infection, particularly in relation to se...

    Authors: Maimuna E Mendy, Samuel J McConkey, Marianne AB Sande van der, Sarah Crozier, Steve Kaye, David Jeffries, Andrew J Hall and Hilton C Whittle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:49

    Content type: Research

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  7. The morbidity and mortality associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in immunocompromised patients (especially in HIV-infected patients and transplant recipients), as well as with congenital CMV infecti...

    Authors: Petros I Rafailidis, Eleni G Mourtzoukou, Ioannis C Varbobitis and Matthew E Falagas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:47

    Content type: Review

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  8. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes two transmembrane glycoproteins E1 and E2 which form a heterodimer. E1 is believed to mediate fusion while E2 has been shown to bind cellular receptors including CD81. In this s...

    Authors: Katharina B Rothwangl, Balaji Manicassamy, Susan L Uprichard and Lijun Rong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:46

    Content type: Research

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  9. There is overwhelming evidence that persistent infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) is the main risk factor for invasive cancer of the cervix. Due to this global public health burden, two p...

    Authors: Vandana A Govan, Edward P Rybicki and Anna-Lise Williamson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:45

    Content type: Short report

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  10. Influenza virus infection or vaccination evokes an antibody response to viral hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) surface glycoproteins, which results in immunity against influenza A viruses of the same ...

    Authors: Timothy M Straight, Martin G Ottolini, Gregory A Prince and Maryna C Eichelberger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:44

    Content type: Research

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  11. Hairpin RNAs have been used to confer resistance to viruses in plants through RNA silencing. However, it has not been demonstrated that RNA silencing was effective against inoculation by aphids of non-persiste...

    Authors: Marisol Vargas, Belén Martínez-García, José Ramón Díaz-Ruíz and Francisco Tenllado

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:42

    Content type: Short report

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  12. It has been demonstrated that the p53 pathway plays an important role in HIV-1 infection. Previous work from our lab has established a model demonstrating how p53 could become inactivated in HIV-1 infected cel...

    Authors: Weilin Wu, Kylene Kehn-Hall, Caitlin Pedati, Lynnsey Zweier, Iris Castro, Zachary Klase, Cynthia S Dowd, Larisa Dubrovsky, Michael Bukrinsky and Fatah Kashanchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:41

    Content type: Research

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  13. The vaccinia virus (VV) F2L gene encodes a functional deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) that catalyzes the conversion of dUTP to dUMP and is thought to minimize the incorporation of deoxyuridine residues i...

    Authors: Mark N Prichard, Earl R Kern, Debra C Quenelle, Kathy A Keith, Richard W Moyer and Peter C Turner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:39

    Content type: Research

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  14. Clinical diagnosis of kidney transplants related illnesses is not a simple task. Several studies were conducted to define diseases and complications after renal transplantation, but there are no comprehensive ...

    Authors: Monica Mischitelli, Anna Bellizzi, Elena Anzivino, Daniela Fioriti, Renzo Boldorini, Umberto Miglio, Fernanda Chiarini, Franco Di Monaco and Valeria Pietropaolo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:38

    Content type: Review

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  15. Intracellular influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is characterized by a high efficiency of homo-polymers formation, however their antigenic structure is still incompletely known. Herein, we report that RNase-re...

    Authors: Elena N Prokudina, Nataly Semenova, Valery Chumakov and Lothar Stitz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:37

    Content type: Short report

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  16. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of se...

    Authors: Samuel T Workenhe, Molly JT Kibenge, Glenda M Wright, Dorota W Wadowska, David B Groman and Frederick SB Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:36

    Content type: Research

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  17. Screening wild birds for viral pathogens has become increasingly important. We tested a screening approach based on blood and cloacal and tracheal swabs collected by hunters to study the prevalence of influenz...

    Authors: Erika Lindh, Anita Huovilainen, Osmo Rätti, Christine Ek-Kommonen, Tarja Sironen, Eili Huhtamo, Hannu Pöysä, Antti Vaheri and Olli Vapalahti

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:35

    Content type: Research

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  18. Since 2004, several million indigenous cases of Chikungunya virus disease occurred in Africa, the Indian Ocean, India, Asia and, recently, Europe. The virus, usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, has n...

    Authors: Xavier de Lamballerie, Eric Leroy, Rémi N Charrel, Konstantin Ttsetsarkin, Stephen Higgs and Ernest A Gould

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:33

    Content type: Short report

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  19. The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group proteins, is involved in multiple cellular protein complexes. Its C-terminal domain, which is common to the four EED isoforms, contains seven r...

    Authors: Dina Rakotobe, Sébastien Violot, Saw See Hong, Patrice Gouet and Pierre Boulanger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:32

    Content type: Research

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  20. Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of Chikungunya virus (CHIK virus) infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIK virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae....

    Authors: Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy, Sarojamma Vemula and Ramakrishna Vadde

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:31

    Content type: Research

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  21. The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein (HPV16 E5) is 83 amino acids in length and contains three well-defined hydrophobic regions. The protein is expressed at very limited amounts in transfected cells and...

    Authors: Caroline Lewis, Marta F Baro, Margarita Marques, Myriam Grüner, Angel Alonso and Ignacio G Bravo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:30

    Content type: Research

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  22. The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining...

    Authors: John J Cannell, Michael Zasloff, Cedric F Garland, Robert Scragg and Edward Giovannucci

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:29

    Content type: Review

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  23. Flaviviruses include the mosquito-borne dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and West Nile and the tick-borne encephalitis viruses. They are responsible for considerable world-wide morbidity and mortali...

    Authors: Stephen J Seligman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:27

    Content type: Research

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  24. Enteritis is caused by a spectrum of viruses that is most likely not fully characterised. When testing stool samples by cell culture, virus isolates are sometimes obtained which cannot be typed by current meth...

    Authors: Luciano Kleber de Souza Luna, Sigrid Baumgarte, Klaus Grywna, Marcus Panning, Jan Felix Drexler and Christian Drosten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:26

    Content type: Research

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  25. La Crosse virus (LACV), family Bunyaviridae, was first identified as a human pathogen in 1960 after its isolation from a 4 year-old girl with fatal encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin. LACV is a major cause o...

    Authors: Richard S Bennett, Christina M Cress, Jerrold M Ward, Cai-Yen Firestone, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:25

    Content type: Research

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  26. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) contains a highly conserved C-terminal polyproline motif with the consensus sequence Pro-X-X-Pro-X-Arg that is able to interact with the Src-homolog...

    Authors: Holly Shelton and Mark Harris

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:24

    Content type: Research

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  27. Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protecti...

    Authors: Johan Druelle, Caroline I Sellin, Diane Waku-Kouomou, Branka Horvat and Fabian T Wild

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:22

    Content type: Research

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  28. Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) for s...

    Authors: Parag Saxena, Paban Kumar Dash, SR Santhosh, Ambuj Shrivastava, Manmohan Parida and PV Lakshmana Rao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:20

    Content type: Methodology

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  29. Cloning of full length genomes of herpesviruses as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) has greatly facilitated the manipulation of the genomes of several herpesviruses to identify the pathogenic determinant...

    Authors: Yuguang Zhao, Lawrence Petherbridge, Lorraine P Smith, Sue Baigent and Venugopal Nair

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:19

    Content type: Short report

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  30. The paper analyses the epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreaks in children in Croatia. Over a period of 11 consecutive winter seasons (1994–2005) 3,435 inpatients from Zagreb County age...

    Authors: Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic, Robert C Welliver, Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek, Suncanica Ljubin-Sternak, Vladimir Drazenovic, Ivana Galinovic and Vlatka Tomic

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:18

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Human adenovirus type 19 (HAdV-19) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, the only ocular adenoviral infection associated with prolonged corneal inflammation. In this study, we investigated the rol...

    Authors: Jaya Rajaiya, Jingnan Xiao, Raju VS Rajala and James Chodosh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:17

    Content type: Research

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  32. Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world. Increasing cases of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia, frequent outbreaks of Yellow fever virus in Africa and South A...

    Authors: Sheryl L Maher-Sturgess, Naomi L Forrester, Paul J Wayper, Ernest A Gould, Roy A Hall, Ross T Barnard and Mark J Gibbs

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:16

    Content type: Research

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  33. Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properti...

    Authors: Magdalena Escorcia, Lourdes Vázquez, Sara T Méndez, Andrea Rodríguez-Ropón, Eduardo Lucio and Gerardo M Nava

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:15

    Content type: Short report

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  34. N-linked glycosylation is a major mechanism for minimizing virus neutralizing antibody response and is present on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein. Although it is known that glycosy...

    Authors: Yung Shwen Ho, Ana B Abecasis, Kristof Theys, Koen Deforche, Dominic E Dwyer, Michael Charleston, Anne Mieke Vandamme and Nitin K Saksena

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:14

    Content type: Research

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  35. An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (Spli NPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (Ac MNPV). Compa...

    Authors: AlaaEddeen M Seufi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:13

    Content type: Research

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  36. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its know...

    Authors: Adam Monier, Jens Borggaard Larsen, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, Gunnar Bratbak, Jean-Michel Claverie and Hiroyuki Ogata

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:12

    Content type: Research

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  37. Retroviral transduction involves integrase-dependent linkage of viral and host DNA that leaves an intermediate that requires post-integration repair (PIR). We and others proposed that PIR hijacks the host cell...

    Authors: Johanna A Smith, Feng-Xiang Wang, Hui Zhang, Kou-Juey Wu, Kevin Jon Williams and René Daniel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:11

    Content type: Research

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  38. Single-stranded RNA viruses, infectious to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, with typically no apparent signs of infection observed in the honeybees. Reverse ...

    Authors: Andrea C Baker and Declan C Schroeder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:10

    Content type: Research

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  39. Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the...

    Authors: Clarissa PC Gomes, Tatsuya Nagata, Waldir C de Jesus Jr, Carlos R Borges Neto, Georgios J Pappas Jr and Darren P Martin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:9

    Content type: Research

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  40. Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. To identify its mechanism of action, we performed bioactivity-guided fractionation on Sargassum fusiform...

    Authors: Elena E Paskaleva, Xudong Lin, Karen Duus, James J McSharry, Jean-Claude L Veille, Carol Thornber, Yanze Liu, David Yu-Wei Lee and Mario Canki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:8

    Content type: Research

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