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  1. Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in ...

    Authors: Krishnamurthy Konduru, Maria Luisa Virata-Theimer, Mei-ying W Yu and Gerardo G Kaplan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:155

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. In immunopathological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease are often discussed. The Theiler murine encep...

    Authors: Nicolas P Turrin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:154

    Content type: Research

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  3. To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with IgM antibodies to dengue fever infection to determine the serotypes present by molecular techniques. A representative sample (~20%/per year) of patients dia...

    Authors: M Gittens-St Hilaire and Nicole Clarke-Greenidge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:152

    Content type: Research

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  4. PVs (PV) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been identified as the primary etiological agent for cervical cancer and their potential for malignant transformation in mucosal tissue ...

    Authors: John Lowe, Debasis Panda, Suzanne Rose, Ty Jensen, Willie A Hughes, For Yue Tso and Peter C Angeletti

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:150

    Content type: Research

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  5. The I5L gene is one of ~90 genes that are conserved throughout the chordopoxvirus family, and hence are presumed to play vital roles in the poxvirus life cycle. Previous work had indicated that the VP13 protei...

    Authors: Bethany Unger, R Jeremy Nichols, Eleni S Stanitsa and Paula Traktman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:148

    Content type: Research

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  6. Although the important role of the non-structural 1 (NS) gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established, our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses i...

    Authors: Siamak Zohari, Péter Gyarmati, Anneli Ejdersund, Ulla Berglöf, Peter Thorén, Maria Ehrenberg, György Czifra, Sándor Belák, Jonas Waldenström, Björn Olsen and Mikael Berg

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:147

    Content type: Research

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  7. Occult or latent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as infection with detectable HBV DNA and undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients' blood. The cause of an overt HBV infection becoming an o...

    Authors: Formijn J van Hemert, Hans L Zaaijer, Ben Berkhout and Vladimir V Lukashov

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:146

    Content type: Research

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  8. Low levels of uracil in DNA result from misincorporation of dUMP or cytosine deamination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes two enzymes that can potentially reduce the amount of uracil in ...

    Authors: Frank S De Silva and Bernard Moss

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:145

    Content type: Research

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  9. Our studies were aimed at developing a vaccination strategy that could provide protection against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N3 or its variants outbreaks. A purified viral stock of highly...

    Authors: Mirza Imran Shahzad, Khalid Naeem, Muhammad Mukhtar and Azra Khanum

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:144

    Content type: Research

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  10. RNA recombination is one of the two major factors that create RNA genome variability. Assessing its incidence in plant RNA viruses helps understand the formation of new isolates and evaluate the effectiveness ...

    Authors: Alla G Gagarinova, Mohan Babu, Martina V Strömvik and Aiming Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:143

    Content type: Short report

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  11. The high diversity of HIV variants driving the global AIDS epidemic has caused many to doubt whether an effective vaccine against the virus is possible. However, by identifying the selective forces that are dr...

    Authors: Gama P Bandawe, Darren P Martin, Florette Treurnicht, Koleka Mlisana, Salim S Abdool Karim and Carolyn Williamson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:141

    Content type: Research

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  12. Toll-like receptors have a key role in innate immune response to microbial infection. The toll-like receptor (TLR) family consists of ten identified human TLRs, of which TLR2 and TLR9 have been shown to initia...

    Authors: Piritta Peri, Riikka K Mattila, Helena Kantola, Eeva Broberg, Heidi S Karttunen, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen and Veijo Hukkanen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:140

    Content type: Research

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  13. In this report we describe the genomic sequence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) assembled from a tissue culture-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clone, plasmid clones of viral restriction fragment...

    Authors: Mark R Schleiss, Alistair McGregor, K Yeon Choi, Shailesh V Date, Xiaohong Cui and Michael A McVoy

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:139

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus capable of causing fatal disease in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus ...

    Authors: Jared R Patch, Ziying Han, Sarah E McCarthy, Lianying Yan, Lin-Fa Wang, Ronald N Harty and Christopher C Broder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:137

    Content type: Research

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  15. The Anopheles gambiae heat shock cognate gene (hsc70B) encodes a constitutively expressed protein in the hsp70 family and it functions as a molecular chaperone for protein folding. However, the expression of hsc7...

    Authors: Seokyoung Kang, Cheolho Sim, Brian D Byrd, Frank H Collins and Young S Hong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:136

    Content type: Research

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  16. Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (Geminiviridae) are emerging economically important plant viruses with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. Previous studies have shown that geminiviruses and RNA viruses exhib...

    Authors: Cica Urbino, Gael Thébaud, Martine Granier, Stéphane Blanc and Michel Peterschmitt

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:135

    Content type: Methodology

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  17. As part of efforts to control Japanese encephalitis (JE), the World Health Organization is producing a set of standards for JE surveillance, which require the identification of patients with acute encephalitis...

    Authors: Fidan Jmor, Hedley CA Emsley, Marc Fischer, Tom Solomon and Penny Lewthwaite

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:134

    Content type: Review

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  18. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) play a major role in plans to mitigate future influenza pandemics. Modeling studies suggested that a pandemic may be contained at the source by early treatment and prophylaxis wit...

    Authors: Stefan O Brockmann, Markus Schwehm, Hans-Peter Duerr, Mark Witschi, Daniel Koch, Beatriz Vidondo and Martin Eichner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:133

    Content type: Short report

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  19. The transcription/replication of the influenza viruses implicate the terminal nucleotide sequences of viral RNA, which comprise sequences at the extremities conserved among the genomic segments as well as vari...

    Authors: Bernadette Crescenzo-Chaigne, Cyril Barbezange and Sylvie van der Werf

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:132

    Content type: Research

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  20. Identification of neutralizing antibodies with specificity away from the traditional mutation prone antigenic regions, against the conserved regions of hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza virus has the potential...

    Authors: Angeline PC Lim, Conrad EZ Chan, Steven KK Wong, Annie HY Chan, Eng Eong Ooi and Brendon J Hanson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:130

    Content type: Research

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  21. Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protectio...

    Authors: Zerihun Hailemariam, Abdul Rahman Omar, Mohd Hair-Bejo and Tan Ching Giap

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:128

    Content type: Research

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  22. Cell-surface viral proteins most frequently enter the cell through clathrin or caveolae endocytosis. Respiratory syncytial virus antigen internalization by immune cells is via caveolin, however, uptake of para...

    Authors: Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carla Sánchez-Hernández and Beatriz Gómez-García

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:127

    Content type: Short report

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  23. The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL7 gene is highly conserved among herpesviridae. Since the construction of recombinant HSV-1 with a mutation in the UL7 gene has not been reported, the involvement of HSV-1 UL7...

    Authors: Michiko Tanaka, Tetsutaro Sata and Yasushi Kawaguchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:125

    Content type: Research

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  24. Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world. All APMVs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxovirid...

    Authors: Baibaswata Nayak, Sachin Kumar, Peter L Collins and Siba K Samal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:124

    Content type: Research

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  25. Cotton blue disease (CBD), an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting du...

    Authors: TF Silva, RL Corrêa, Y Castilho, P Silvie, J-L Bélot and MFS Vaslin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:123

    Content type: Research

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  26. Kluyvera, a genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, is an infrequent cause of human infections. Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens, is a member o...

    Authors: Erika J Lingohr, Andre Villegas, Yi-Min She, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens and Andrew M Kropinski

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:122

    Content type: Research

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  27. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus was studied using nucleotide sequencing of the C-terminal region of the N protein gene and phylogenetic analysis on 59 isolates from 16 provinces of China in...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Yixin Ji, Xiaohong Jiang, Songtao Xu, Zhen Zhu, Lei Zheng, Jilan He, Hua Ling, Yan Wang, Yang Liu, Wen Du, Xuelei Yang, Naiying Mao and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:120

    Content type: Research

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  28. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower airway disease in infants and young children, but no safe and effective RSV vaccine is yet available. Factors attributing to this problem are ...

    Authors: Elizabeth C Moore, Jamie Barber and Ralph A Tripp

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:116

    Content type: Research

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  29. Umbre (UMB) virus was first isolated from India in 1955 and classified as Orthobunyavirus (Turlock serogroup). Eight isolates of this virus, isolated from Culex mosquitoes were characterized on the basis of pa...

    Authors: Pragya D Yadav, Akhilesh C Mishra and Devendra T Mourya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:115

    Content type: Short report

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  30. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral pathogen associated with bronchiolitis and lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. The respiratory epithelium is the prim...

    Authors: Dongchi Zhao, Dan Peng, Lei Li, Qiwei Zhang and Chuyu Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:114

    Content type: Research

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  31. The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006 indicated the co-circulation of two sub-lineages of these viruses at t...

    Authors: István Kiss, Péter Gyarmati, Siamak Zohari, Karin Wilbe Ramsay, Giorgi Metreveli, Elisabeth Weiss, Maria Brytting, Marielle Stivers, Sofia Lindström, Ake Lundkvist, Kirill Nemirov, Peter Thorén, Mikael Berg, György Czifra and Sándor Belák

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:113

    Content type: Research

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  32. In this report we test the hypothesis that long-term virus-induced alterations in CYP occur from changes initiated by the virus that may not be related to the immune response. Enzyme activity, protein expressi...

    Authors: Shellie M Callahan, Piyanuch Wonganan and Maria A Croyle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:111

    Content type: Research

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  33. We have previously reported that the apathogenic Tula hantavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 epithelial cells. To assess the molecular mechanisms behind the induced apoptosis we studied the effects of hantavi...

    Authors: Tomas Strandin, Jussi Hepojoki, Hao Wang, Antti Vaheri and Hilkka Lankinen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:110

    Content type: Research

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  34. The emergence of influenza strains that are resistant to commonly used antivirals has highlighted the need to develop new compounds that target viral gene products or host mechanisms that are essential for eff...

    Authors: Maryna C Eichelberger, Arash Hassantoufighi, Meng Wu and Min Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:109

    Content type: Methodology

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  35. The genus Alphavirus includes several potentially lethal human viruses. Additionally, species such as Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus are important vectors for gene therapy, vaccination and cancer research...

    Authors: Andrew E Firth, Betty YW Chung, Marina N Fleeton and John F Atkins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:108

    Content type: Research

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  36. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, n...

    Authors: Andreas Grassauer, Regina Weinmuellner, Christiane Meier, Alexander Pretsch, Eva Prieschl-Grassauer and Hermann Unger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:107

    Content type: Research

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