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  1. The choice of an appropriate housekeeping gene for normalisation purposes has now become an essential requirement when designing QPCR experiments. This is of particular importance when using QPCR to measure vi...

    Authors: Sarah Watson, Sarah Mercier, Chris Bye, John Wilkinson, Anthony L Cunningham and Andrew N Harman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:130

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Genotyping of HBV is generally used for determining the epidemiological relationship between various virus strains and origin of infection mostly in research studies. The utility of genotyping for clinical app...

    Authors: Saeeda Baig, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Waqaruddin Ahmed, Huma Qureshi and Ambreen Arif

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:128

    Content type: Research

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  3. Papillomaviruses (PVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect keratinocytes in differentiating epithelia and induce hyperproliferative lesions. Here, we used methylcellulose to induce cell differentiation...

    Authors: Xiao Wang, Bo Li and Kong-Nan Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:127

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Several subtypes of HIV-1 circulate in infected people worldwide, including subtype B in the United States and subtype C in Africa and India. To understand the biological properties of HIV-1 subtype C, includi...

    Authors: Vasudha Sundaravaradan, Suman R Das, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Shobha Sehgal, Sarla Gopalan, Nafees Ahmad and Shahid Jameel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:126

    Content type: Research

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  5. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal riboso...

    Authors: Lorin Moes and Manfred Wirth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:124

    Content type: Research

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  6. Mechanisms by which HIV-1 mediates reductions in CD4+ cell levels in infected persons are being intensely investigated, and have broad implications for AIDS drug and vaccine development. Virally induced change...

    Authors: Joshua M Costin, Joshua M Rausch, Robert F Garry and William C Wimley

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:123

    Content type: Research

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  7. According to the World Reference Laboratory for FMD, a new subtype of FMDV serotype A was detected in Iran in 2005. This subtype was designated A/IRN/2005, and rapidly spread throughout Iran and moved westward...

    Authors: Joern Klein, Manzoor Hussain, Munir Ahmad, Preben Normann, Muhammad Afzal and Soren Alexandersen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:122

    Content type: Research

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  8. The HSV-1 UL20 protein (UL20p) and glycoprotein K (gK) are both important determinants of cytoplasmic virion morphogenesis and virus-induced cell fusion. In this manuscript, we examined the effect of UL20 muta...

    Authors: Jeffrey M Melancon, Preston A Fulmer and Konstantin G Kousoulas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:120

    Content type: Research

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  9. This is a retraction of the article submitted by Zhang et al. Virology J 2007, 4:92

    Authors: Qingrun Zhang, Guanghua Wu, Elliott Richards, Shan'gang Jia and Changqing Zeng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:119

    Content type: Retraction Note

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2007 4:92

  10. The M2 ectodomain (M2e) of influenza A virus (IAV) strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs) are capable ...

    Authors: Krystyna Mozdzanowska, Darya Zharikova, Mare Cudic, Laszlo Otvos and Walter Gerhard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:118

    Content type: Research

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  11. HBV remains one of the major pathogens of liver diseases but the outcomes as inflammation, cirrhosis and cancer of the liver are greatly related to different viral genotypes. The aim of this study was to asses...

    Authors: Yi Wei Lu, Tuan Lin Tan, Jianhua Zhang and Wei Ning Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:117

    Content type: Short report

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  12. The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein (HPV16 E5) down-regulates surface expression of HLA-I molecules. The molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are so far unknown. Here we show that HPV16 E5 down-...

    Authors: Myriam Gruener, Ignacio G Bravo, Frank Momburg, Angel Alonso and Pascal Tomakidi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:116

    Content type: Research

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  13. The yellow fever virus, a member of the genus Flavivirus, is an arthropod-borne pathogen causing severe disease in humans. The attenuated yellow fever 17D virus strain has been used for human vaccination for 70 y...

    Authors: Myrna C Bonaldo, Samanta M Mello, Gisela F Trindade, Aymara A Rangel, Adriana S Duarte, Prisciliana J Oliveira, Marcos S Freire, Claire F Kubelka and Ricardo Galler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:115

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivor...

    Authors: Jin-Won Song, Se Hun Gu, Shannon N Bennett, Satoru Arai, Maria Puorger, Monika Hilbe and Richard Yanagihara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:114

    Content type: Short report

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  15. A DNA mirror repeat is a sequence segment delimited on the basis of its containing a center of symmetry on a single strand, e.g. 5'-GCATGGTACG-3'. It is most frequently described in association with a function...

    Authors: Dorothy M Lang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:113

    Content type: Research

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  16. A human papillomavirus (HPV) virion is composed of capsid proteins L1 and L2. Several cysteine residues are located on L1 of various HPVs at markedly similar relative positions, suggesting their important func...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Ishii, Kazunari Kondo, Tamae Matsumoto, Keiko Tanaka, Fumiko Shinkai-Ouchi, Ken'ichi Hagiwara and Tadahito Kanda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:110

    Content type: Research

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  17. Motavizumab (MEDI-524) is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters o...

    Authors: Asunción Mejías, Susana Chávez-Bueno, Martin B Raynor, John Connolly, Peter A Kiener, Hasan S Jafri and Octavio Ramilo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:109

    Content type: Short report

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  18. The filoviruses, Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV), cause a lethal hemorrhagic fever. Human isolates of MARV are not lethal to immmunocompetent adult mice and, to date, there are no reports of a mouse-adapted MA...

    Authors: Kelly L Warfield, Derron A Alves, Steven B Bradfute, Daniel K Reed, Sean VanTongeren, Warren V Kalina, Gene G Olinger and Sina Bavari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:108

    Content type: Research

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  19. Here we investigated the nature and functional consequences of mutations in the HIV-1 tat gene within an epidemiologically-linked AIDS transmission cohort consisting of a non-progressing donor (A) and two normal ...

    Authors: Haran Sivakumaran, Bin Wang, M John Gill, Brenda Beckholdt, Nitin K Saksena and David Harrich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:107

    Content type: Short report

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  20. We have developed a system that isolates and replicates HCV in vitro. These isolates are called CIMM-HCV. This system has made it possible to analyze the biology, nature, and extent of HCV variability, among othe...

    Authors: S Zaki Salahuddin, Katherine A Snyder, Andre Godwin, Renu Grewal, John G Prichard, Ann S Kelley and Dennis Revie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:106

    Content type: Research

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  21. The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus (MARV) is responsible for the encapsidation of viral genomic RNA and the formation of the helical nucleocapsid precursors that accumulate in intracellular inclusions in ...

    Authors: Andrea DiCarlo, Peggy Möller, Angelika Lander, Larissa Kolesnikova and Stephan Becker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:105

    Content type: Research

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  22. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no pro...

    Authors: Rasha M Elsheikh, Ahmed A Daak, Mohamed A Elsheikh, Mubarak S Karsany and Ishag Adam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:104

    Content type: Research

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  23. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been widely explored as a gene delivery vector for a variety of diseases. Many target cells, however, express low levels of Ad5 native receptor, the Coxsackie-Adenovirus R...

    Authors: Tie Han, Yizhe Tang, Hideyo Ugai, Leslie E Perry, Gene P Siegal, Juan L Contreras and Hongju Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:103

    Content type: Research

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  24. Viruses that are incorporating host cell proteins might trigger autoimmune diseases. It is therefore of interest to identify possible host proteins associated with viruses, especially for enveloped viruses tha...

    Authors: Maria Hammarstedt, Jenny Ahlqvist, Steven Jacobson, Henrik Garoff and Anna Fogdell-Hahn

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:101

    Content type: Research

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  25. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely investigated since its discovery in 1983 as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). With relatively few proteins made by the ...

    Authors: Joshua M Costin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:100

    Content type: Review

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  26. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) has rapidly gained popularity in gene therapy since the establishment of the first AAV2 infectious clone, in 1982, due to some of their distinguishing characteristics such as l...

    Authors: Renata dosSantos Coura and Nance Beyer Nardi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:99

    Content type: Review

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2010 7:12

  27. Genotype 4 hepatitis E virus (HEV) was reportedly transmitted freely between humans and swine in eastern China. The full-length genomic sequence of Shanghai swine isolate (SH-SW-zs1) recovered from feces sampl...

    Authors: Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Xiangrong Cao, Jing Mou, Li Cui and Xiuguo Hua

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:98

    Content type: Research

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  28. The recently sequenced 218 kb genome of morphologically atypical Bacillus thuringiensis phage 0305φ8-36 exhibited only limited detectable homology to known bacteriophages. The only known relative of this phage is...

    Authors: Stephen C Hardies, Julie A Thomas and Philip Serwer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:97

    Content type: Research

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  29. Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) is a severe acute viral disease specifically affecting the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. As the European rabbit is the predominant species of domestic rabbit throughout t...

    Authors: Michael T McIntosh, Shawn C Behan, Fawzi M Mohamed, Zhiqiang Lu, Karen E Moran, Thomas G Burrage, John G Neilan, Gordon B Ward, Giuliana Botti, Lorenzo Capucci and Samia A Metwally

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:96

    Content type: Research

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  30. Natural multiple viral infections of cultivated cowpeas have been reported in Nigeria. In this study, three Nigerian commercial cowpea cultivars ("Olo 11", "Oloyin" and "White") and two lines from the IITA (IT...

    Authors: Moni A Taiwo, Kehinde T Kareem, Imade Y Nsa and Jackies D'A Hughes

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:95

    Content type: Research

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  31. Myxoma virus (MYXV), a leporide-specific poxvirus, represents an attractive candidate for the generation of safe, non-replicative vaccine vector for non-host species. However, there is very little information ...

    Authors: Béatrice Pignolet, Jean-Luc Duteyrat, Aude Allemandou, Jacqueline Gelfi, Gilles Foucras and Stéphane Bertagnoli

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:94

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health problem worldwide. Treatment recommendation and response are mainly indicated by viral load, e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, and ALT levels. The S antige...

    Authors: Min Lian, Xu Zhou, Lai Wei, Shihong Qiu, Tong Zhou, Lanfen Li, Xiaocheng Gu, Ming Luo and Xiaofeng Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:93

    Content type: Methodology

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  33. The highly heterogenic characteristic of viruses is the major obstacle to efficient DNA amplification. Taking advantage of the large number of virus DNA sequences in public databases to select conserved sites ...

    Authors: Qingrun Zhang, Guanghua Wu, Elliott Richards, Shan'gang Jia and Changqing Zeng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:92

    Content type: Methodology

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    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2007 4:119

  34. Dengue and Dengue hemorrhagic fever have emerged as some of the most important mosquito-borne viral diseases in the tropics. The mechanisms of pathogenesis of Dengue remain elusive. Recently, virus-induced apo...

    Authors: Indira Umareddy, Olivier Pluquet, Qing Yin Wang, Subhash G Vasudevan, Eric Chevet and Feng Gu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:91

    Content type: Research

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  35. The genetic characterization of wild-type measles strains isolated during an epidemic cluster of measles occurred in Puglia (South Italy), between November 2006 and January 2007, was performed. Measles virus (...

    Authors: Maria Chironna, Rosa Prato, Anna Sallustio, Domenico Martinelli, Cinzia Germinario, Pierluigi Lopalco and Michele Quarto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:90

    Content type: Short report

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  36. Alpha interferon in combination with ribavirin is the standard therapy for hepatitis C virus infection. Unfortunately, a significant number of patients fail to eradicate their infection with this regimen. The ...

    Authors: Sidhartha Hazari, Lizeth Taylor, Salima Haque, Robert F Garry, Sander Florman, Ronald Luftig, Frederic Regenstein and Srikanta Dash

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:89

    Content type: Research

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  37. Endothelial cells are a target for gene therapy because they are implicated in a number of vascular diseases. Recombinant baculovirus have emerged as novel gene delivery vectors. However, there is no informati...

    Authors: Agustín Luz-Madrigal, Carmen Clapp, Jorge Aranda and Luis Vaca

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:88

    Content type: Research

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  38. Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly vascularized neoplasm characterized by endothelial-derived spindle-shaped tumor cells. KSHV-infected mic...

    Authors: Bryan D Shelby, Heather L LaMarca, Harris E McFerrin, Anne B Nelson, Joseph A Lasky, Gang Sun, Leslie Myatt, Margaret K Offermann, Cindy A Morris and Deborah E Sullivan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:87

    Content type: Research

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  39. Noroviruses are the most common cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Improved detection methods have seen a large increase in the number of human NoV genotypes in the last ten years. The objective of this s...

    Authors: John F Menton, Karen Kearney and John G Morgan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:86

    Content type: Research

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  40. HTLV-I infected CD4+ T-cells lines usually progress towards a CD3- or CD3low phenotype. In this paper, we studied expression, kinetics, chromatin remodeling of the CD3 gene at different time-points post HTLV-I in...

    Authors: Haidar Akl, Bassam Badran, Gratiela Dobirta, Germain Manfouo-Foutsop, Maria Moschitta, Makram Merimi, Arsène Burny, Philippe Martiat and Karen E Willard-Gallo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:85

    Content type: Research

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  41. Targeting the highly conserved herpes DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene with PCR using panherpes degenerate primers is a powerful tool to universally detect unknown herpesviruses. However, vertebrate hosts are often ...

    Authors: Sandra Prepens, Karl-Anton Kreuzer, Fabian Leendertz, Andreas Nitsche and Bernhard Ehlers

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:84

    Content type: Methodology

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  42. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a member of mosquito-borne Flaviviridae. To date, the mechanisms of the early events of JEV infection remain poorly understood, and the cellular receptors are unidentified. Th...

    Authors: Junping Ren, Tianbing Ding, Wei Zhang, Jianhua Song and Wenyu Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:83

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  43. Lymphocytes provide invaluable whistle blowers of changes due to infections. We use the information registered by these cells using their mRNAs as they encounter the pathogen to develop patterns of expression ...

    Authors: Rasha Hammamieh, Mohsen Barmada, George Ludwig, Sheila Peel, Nick Koterski and Marti Jett

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:82

    Content type: Research

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  44. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) is a complex retrovirus and the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The HIV-1 Vpu protein is an oligomeric integral membrane protein ess...

    Authors: Amjad Hussain, Suman R Das, Charu Tanwar and Shahid Jameel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:81

    Content type: Research

    Published on: