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  1. The genus Alphavirus includes several potentially lethal human viruses. Additionally, species such as Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus are important vectors for gene therapy, vaccination and cancer research...

    Authors: Andrew E Firth, Betty YW Chung, Marina N Fleeton and John F Atkins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:108

    Content type: Research

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  2. This paper aimed at studying the transplacental transmission of HPV and looking at the epidemiological factors involved in maternal viral infection. The following sampling methods were used: (1) in the pregnan...

    Authors: Renato L Rombaldi, Eduardo P Serafini, Jovana Mandelli, Edineia Zimmermann and Kamille P Losquiavo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:106

    Content type: Research

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  3. A subset of the virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) isolated from the lungs of mice infected with human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is impaired in the ability to secrete interferon γ (IFNγ)...

    Authors: Joshua M DiNapoli, Brian R Murphy, Peter L Collins and Alexander Bukreyev

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:105

    Content type: Research

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  4. Recent reports have indicated that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses in the taxonomic families Geminiviridae, Parvoviridae and Anellovirus may be evolving at rates of ~10-4 substitutions per site per year (subs...

    Authors: Eric van der Walt, Darren P Martin, Arvind Varsani, Jane E Polston and Edward P Rybicki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:104

    Content type: Research

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  5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulates in an infected individual as a heterogeneous mixture of closely related viruses called quasispecies. The E1/E2 region of the HCV genome is hypervariable (HVR1) and is targete...

    Authors: Isabelle Moreau, Hilary O'Sullivan, Caroline Murray, John Levis, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh and Liam J Fanning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:103

    Content type: Research

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  6. To identify the subcellular forms and biochemical events induced in human cells after HCV polyprotein expression, we have used a robust cell culture system based on vaccinia virus (VACV) that efficiently expre...

    Authors: Andrée M Vandermeeren, Carmen Elena Gómez, Cristina Patiño, Elena Domingo-Gil, Susana Guerra, Jose Manuel González and Mariano Esteban

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:102

    Content type: Research

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  7. Dengue is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical regions. In Colombia, dengue viruses (DENV) cause about 50,000 cases annually, 10% of which involve Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome....

    Authors: Jose A Usme-Ciro, Jairo A Mendez, Antonio Tenorio, Gloria J Rey, Cristina Domingo and Juan C Gallego-Gomez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:101

    Content type: Research

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  8. Caesarean section before labor or before ruptured membranes ("elective caesarean section", or ECS) has been introduced as an intervention for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus...

    Authors: Jin Yang, Xue-mei Zeng, Ya-lin Men and Lian-san Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:100

    Content type: Review

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  9. The enormous genetic variability reported in HIV-1 has posed problems in the treatment of infected individuals. This is evident in the form of HIV-1 resistant to antiviral agents, neutralizing antibodies and c...

    Authors: Alagarsamy Srinivasan, Velpandi Ayyavoo, Sundarasamy Mahalingam, Aarthi Kannan, Anne Boyd, Debduti Datta, Vaniambadi S Kalyanaraman, Anthony Cristillo, Ronald G Collman, Nelly Morellet, Bassel E Sawaya and Ramachandran Murali

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:99

    Content type: Research

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  10. Despite the many potential advantages of Ad vectors for vaccine application, the full utility of current Ad vaccines may be limited by the host anti-vector immune response. Direct incorporation of antigens int...

    Authors: Qiana L Matthews, PingAr Yang, Qi Wu, Natalya Belousova, Angel A Rivera, Mariam A Stoff-Khalili, Reinhard Waehler, Hui-Chen Hsu, Zan Li, Jing Li, John D Mountz, Hongju Wu and David T Curiel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:98

    Content type: Research

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  11. The genome of a fecal pollution indicator phage, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 51477-B1, was sequenced and consisted of 44,929 bases with a G+C content of 38.7%. Forty-six putative open reading frames were identified...

    Authors: Shawn A Hawkins, Alice C Layton, Steven Ripp, Dan Williams and Gary S Sayler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:97

    Content type: Short report

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  12. The V3 region of both HIV-1 gp120 and HIV-2 gp125 surface glycoprotein has been described as a target for neutralizing antibodies. In this study a conformation-sensitive (3C4) and a linear site-specific (7C8) ...

    Authors: Samer Sourial and Charlotta Nilsson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:96

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Noroviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. They are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis in humans and clinical signs and lesions of gastroenteritis were ...

    Authors: Alexandra Scipioni, Axel Mauroy, Dominique Ziant, Claude Saegerman and Etienne Thiry

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:94

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. The great advantage of being a sexually transmitted disease is the ability to survive and specialize solely on a host species that is present in low numbers and widely distributed so that contact between infec...

    Authors: Arthur L Koch

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:93

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  15. Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) has been extensively used as model system for the study of positive-sense RNA virus infecting plants. TEV ability to infect Arabidopsis thaliana varies among ecotypes. In this study, ...

    Authors: Patricia Agudelo-Romero, Pablo Carbonell, Francisca de la Iglesia, Javier Carrera, Guillermo Rodrigo, Alfonso Jaramillo, Miguel A Pérez-Amador and Santiago F Elena

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:92

    Content type: Research

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  16. Variations in the influenza Hemagglutinin protein contributes to antigenic drift resulting in decreased efficiency of seasonal influenza vaccines and escape from host immune response. We performed an in silico...

    Authors: Deena MA Gendoo, Mahmoud M El-Hefnawi, Mark Werner and Rania Siam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:91

    Content type: Research

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  17. Lentiviruses such as human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) undergo continual evolution in the host. Previous studies showed that the late-stage variants of SIV that evolve in one host replica...

    Authors: Dawnnica Eastman, Anne Piantadosi, Xueling Wu, Donald N Forthal, Gary Landucci, Jason T Kimata and Julie Overbaugh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:90

    Content type: Research

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  18. Demyelinating strains of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) such as the DA strain are the causative agents of a persistent infection that induce a multiple sclerosis-like disease in the central ne...

    Authors: Stephane Steurbaut, Ellen Merckx, Bart Rombaut and Raf Vrijsen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:89

    Content type: Research

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  19. Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal disorder threatening domesticated and wild psittacine birds worldwide. It is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the ganglia of the central and...

    Authors: Amy L Kistler, Ady Gancz, Susan Clubb, Peter Skewes-Cox, Kael Fischer, Katherine Sorber, Charles Y Chiu, Avishai Lublin, Sara Mechani, Yigal Farnoushi, Alexander Greninger, Christopher C Wen, Scott B Karlene, Don Ganem and Joseph L DeRisi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:88

    Content type: Research

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  20. HIV expressed in genital secretions provides the inoculum from which transmitting variants are selected, both in sexual transmission and mother-to-infant transmission during partuition. Characterization of HIV...

    Authors: Tara C Randolph, Patricia J Kissinger, Rebecca A Clark, Nedra Lacour and Angela M Amedee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:87

    Content type: Short report

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  21. Influenza A viruses of domestic birds originate from the natural reservoir in aquatic birds as a result of interspecies transmission and adaptation to new host species. We previously noticed that influenza vir...

    Authors: Alexandra S Gambaryan, Alexander B Tuzikov, Galina V Pazynina, Julia A Desheva, Nicolai V Bovin, Mikhail N Matrosovich and Alexander I Klimov

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:85

    Content type: Research

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  22. Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality and it is associated to a higher risk of chronic evolution in infected children. In Italy the anti-HBV vaccination was introduced in...

    Authors: Giuseppe La Torre, Nicola Nicolotti, Chiara de Waure, Giacomina Chiaradia, Maria Lucia Specchia, Alice Mannocci and Walter Ricciardi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:84

    Content type: Research

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  23. As HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells play a key role during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection in humans, the ability of potential anti-HIV vaccines to elicit strong, broad T cell responses is likely to be crucial...

    Authors: Silvia Cellini, Cinzia Fortini, Eleonora Gallerani, Federica Destro, Egidio Brocca Cofano, Antonella Caputo and Riccardo Gavioli

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:81

    Content type: Short report

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  24. The monoclonal antibody VN04-2 was previously shown to protect mice against lethal A/Vietnam/1203/04 H5N1 virus challenge when administered pre- and post-infection. In this study, we characterized the binding ...

    Authors: Angeline PC Lim, Steven KK Wong, Annie HY Chan, Conrad EZ Chan, Eng Eong Ooi and Brendon J Hanson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:80

    Content type: Short report

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  25. The most often used mumps vaccine strains Jeryl Lynn (JL), RIT4385, Urabe-AM9, L-Zagreb and L-3 differ in immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Previous analyses showed that JL, Urabe-AM9 and L-3 are genetically ...

    Authors: Tanja Kosutic-Gulija, Dubravko Forcic, Maja Šantak, Ana Ramljak, Sanja Mateljak-Lukacevic and Renata Mazuran

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:79

    Content type: Research

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  26. Pre-treatment HCV quasispecies complexity and diversity may predict response to interferon based anti-viral therapy. The objective of this study was to retrospectively (1) examine temporal changes in quasispec...

    Authors: Isabelle Moreau, John Levis, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh and Liam J Fanning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:78

    Content type: Research

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  27. The emergence of high pathogenicity strains of Influenza A virus in a variety of human and animal hosts, with wide geographic distribution, has highlighted the importance of rapid identification and subtyping ...

    Authors: Alejandra Castillo Alvarez, Marion EG Brunck, Victoria Boyd, Richard Lai, Elena Virtue, Wenbin Chen, Cheryl Bletchly, Hans G Heine and Ross Barnard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:77

    Content type: Research

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  28. Presumptive phage particles associated with Xylella fastidiosa strain Temecula-1 grown in PW broth were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in ultrathin sections of bacterial cell-containing low sp...

    Authors: Jianchi Chen and Edwin L Civerolo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:75

    Content type: Short report

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  29. There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, recombinant Lassa virus (L...

    Authors: Luis M Branco, Alex Matschiner, Joseph N Fair, Augustine Goba, Darryl B Sampey, Philip J Ferro, Kathleen A Cashman, Randal J Schoepp, Robert B Tesh, Daniel G Bausch, Robert F Garry and Mary C Guttieri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:74

    Content type: Research

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  30. The construction of expression vectors derived from the human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), usually based on homologous recombination, is time consuming as a shuttle plasmid has to be selected before recombination ...

    Authors: Laurent Mailly, Charlotte Boulade-Ladame, Georges Orfanoudakis and François Deryckere

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:73

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Hepatitis C virus isolates have been classified into six main genotypes and a variable number of subtypes within each genotype, mainly based on phylogenetic analysis. Analyses of the genetic relationship among...

    Authors: Maria A Bracho, Verónica Saludes, Elisa Martró, Ana Bargalló, Fernando González-Candelas and Vicent Ausina

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:72

    Content type: Research

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  32. The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a better understanding of the mechanisms of H5N1 dispersal, including the potential role of migratory birds as c...

    Authors: Hon S Ip, Paul L Flint, J Christian Franson, Robert J Dusek, Dirk V Derksen, Robert E Gill Jr., Craig R Ely, John M Pearce, Richard B Lanctot, Steven M Matsuoka, David B Irons, Julian B Fischer, Russell M Oates, Margaret R Petersen, Thomas F Fondell, Deborah A Rocque…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:71

    Content type: Research

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  33. Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infection can cause acute lower respiratory tract illness in infants, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. Currently there are no licensed preventative measures for hMPV infecti...

    Authors: Jeanne H Schickli, Jasmine Kaur, Mia MacPhail, Jeanne M Guzzetta, Richard R Spaete and Roderick S Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:69

    Content type: Research

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  34. The NV1020 oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 has shown significant promise for the treatment of many different types of tumors in experimental animal models and human trials. Previously, we described the c...

    Authors: Anna Israyelyan, Vladimir N Chouljenko, Abolghasem Baghian, Andrew T David, Michael T Kearney and Konstantin G Kousoulas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:68

    Content type: Research

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  35. Central to cellular transformation caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is the ability of E6 proteins to target cellular p53 and proteins containing PDZ domains, including MAGI-3, for degradation. The aim o...

    Authors: Julia Ainsworth, Miranda Thomas, Lawrence Banks, Francois Coutlee and Greg Matlashewski

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:67

    Content type: Research

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  36. Selenium (Se) deficiency plays an important role in viral pathogenesis. To understand the effects of Se deficiency on West Nile virus (WNV) infection, we analyzed cytopathogenicity, apoptosis and viral replica...

    Authors: Saguna Verma, Yanira Molina, Yeung Y Lo, Bruce Cropp, Cheynie Nakano, Richard Yanagihara and Vivek R Nerurkar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:66

    Content type: Research

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  37. During the early and mid part of 20th century, several reports described the therapeutic effects of N-methylisatin-β-Thiosemicarbazone (MIBT) against pox viruses, Maloney leukemia viruses and recently against HIV...

    Authors: Liba Sebastian, Anita Desai, Madhusudana N Shampur, Yogeeswari Perumal, D Sriram and Ravi Vasanthapuram

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:64

    Content type: Research

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  38. Although the previous study demonstrated the envelope protein of dengue viruses is under purifying selection pressure, little is known about the genetic differences of full-length viral genomes of DENV-3. In o...

    Authors: Chwan-Chuen King, Day-Yu Chao, Li-Jung Chien, Gwong-Jen J Chang, Ting-Hsiang Lin, Yin-Chang Wu and Jyh-Hsiung Huang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:63

    Content type: Research

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  39. A variety of interactions between up to three different movement proteins (MPs), the coat protein (CP) and genomic DNA mediate the inter- and intra-cellular movement of geminiviruses in the genus Begomovirus. Alt...

    Authors: Eric van der Walt, Kenneth E Palmer, Darren P Martin and Edward P Rybicki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:61

    Content type: Research

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  40. HIV-1 mediated perturbation of the plasma membrane can produce an alteration in the transmembrane gradients of cations and other small molecules leading to cell death. Several HIV-1 proteins have been shown to...

    Authors: Bongkun Choi, Cesar D Fermin, Alla M Comardelle, Allyson M Haislip, Thomas G Voss and Robert F Garry

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:60

    Content type: Research

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  41. The female reproductive tract is amongst the main routes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission. Cervical mucus however is known to protect the female reproductive tract from bacterial invasion an...

    Authors: Habtom H Habte, Corena de Beer, Zoë E Lotz, Marilyn G Tyler, Leann Schoeman, Delawir Kahn and Anwar S Mall

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:59

    Content type: Research

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  42. The emergence of drug resistant viruses, together with the possibility of increased virulence, is an important concern in the development of new antiviral compounds. Cidofovir (CDV) is a phosphonate nucleotide...

    Authors: Marie N Becker, Maria Obraztsova, Earl R Kern, Debra C Quenelle, Kathy A Keith, Mark N Prichard, Ming Luo and Richard W Moyer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:58

    Content type: Research

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