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  1. Influenza epidemics continue to cause morbidity and mortality within the human population despite widespread vaccination efforts. This, along with the ominous threat of an avian influenza pandemic (H5N1), demo...

    Authors: Andrew S Herbert, Lynn Heffron, Roy Sundick and Paul C Roberts

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:42

    Content type: Research

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  2. Based upon whole genome and proteome analysis, Escherichia coli O157:H7-specific bacteriophage (phage) wV8 belongs to the new myoviral genus, "the Felix O1-like viruses" along with Salmonella phage Felix O1 and E...

    Authors: Andre Villegas, Yi-Min She, Andrew M Kropinski, Erika J Lingohr, Amanda Mazzocco, Shivani Ojha, Thomas E Waddell, Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann, Dianne M Moyles, Rafiq Ahmed and Roger P Johnson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:41

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associate...

    Authors: Elena Anzivino, Daniela Fioriti, Monica Mischitelli, Anna Bellizzi, Valentina Barucca, Fernanda Chiarini and Valeria Pietropaolo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:40

    Content type: Review

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  4. Avian influenza virus H5N1 is a major concern as a potential global pandemic. It is thought that multiple key events must take place before efficient human-to-human transmission of the virus occurs. The first ...

    Authors: Ying Guo, Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Jizhen Wang, Haixia Xiao, Jia Yu, Jianwei Wang, Li Guo, George F Gao, Youjia Cao, Michael Caffrey and Lijun Rong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:39

    Content type: Research

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  5. The increase in adamantine resistance in influenza A (H3N2) and the emergence of oseltamivir resistance in influenza A (H1N1) has necessitated the use of rapid methodologies to detect influenza subtype. The pu...

    Authors: Shelly Bolotin, Ernesto Lombos, Rani Yeung, AliReza Eshaghi, Joanne Blair and Steven J Drews

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:37

    Content type: Short report

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  6. We have characterised a new highly divergent geminivirus species, Eragrostis curvula streak virus (ECSV), found infecting a hardy perennial South African wild grass. ECSV represents a new genus-level geminivir...

    Authors: Arvind Varsani, Dionne N Shepherd, Kyle Dent, Aderito L Monjane, Edward P Rybicki and Darren P Martin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:36

    Content type: Research

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  7. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has a positive strand RNA genome and infects different cells of vertebrates and invertebrates. The 5' two-thirds of the genome encodes non-structural proteins that are required for v...

    Authors: Kai Rausalu, Anna Iofik, Liane Ülper, Liis Karo-Astover, Valeria Lulla and Andres Merits

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:33

    Content type: Research

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  8. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defected RNA virus and requires its encoded large antigen (LDAg) to interact with helper viral proteins (HBsAgs) during assembly. Recently, a study demonstrated a direct bindin...

    Authors: Yu-Cheng Wang, Chi-Ruei Huang, Mei Chao and Szecheng J Lo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:31

    Content type: Research

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  9. Epstein-Barr virus is replicated once per cell-cycle, and partitioned equally in latently infected cells. Both these processes require a single viral cis- element, termed oriP, and a single viral protein, EBNA1. ...

    Authors: Ashok Aiyar, Siddhesh Aras, Amber Washington, Gyanendra Singh and Ronald B Luftig

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:29

    Content type: Research

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  10. The licensed smallpox vaccine, comprised of infectious vaccinia virus, has associated adverse effects, particularly for immunocompromised individuals. Therefore, safer DNA and protein vaccines are being invest...

    Authors: Kaori Shinoda, Linda S Wyatt, Kari R Irvine and Bernard Moss

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:28

    Content type: Research

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  11. Little is known about the detailed phylogeny relationships of CRF 02_AG HIV-1 polymerase genes in Ghana. The use of the protease gene of HIV-1 for subtyping has shown conflicting results.

    Authors: Kwamena W Sagoe, Magda Dwidar, Theophilus K Adiku and Max Q Arens

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:27

    Content type: Research

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  12. A focal H5N1 outbreak in poultry was reported from Manipur, a north-eastern state, of India, in 2007. The aim of this study was to genetically characterize the Manipur isolate to understand the relationship wi...

    Authors: Akhilesh C Mishra, Sarah S Cherian, Alok K Chakrabarti, Shailesh D Pawar, Santosh M Jadhav, Biswajoy Pal, Satish Raut, Santosh Koratkar and Sadhana S Kode

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:26

    Content type: Research

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  13. Systemic adenoviral (Ad) vector administration is associated with thrombocytopenia. Recently, Ad interaction with mouse platelets emerged as a key player determining liver uptake and platelet clearance. Howeve...

    Authors: Nilly Shimony, Gregory Elkin, Dror Kolodkin-Gal, Lina Krasny, Simcha Urieli-Shoval and Yosef S Haviv

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:25

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. In the present study, a genotype 4 HEV strain was identified in the fecal specimen from a seven months old infant with no symptom of hepatitis in Shanghai Children's hospital. The full capsid protein gene (ORF...

    Authors: Wen Zhang, Shixing Yang, Quan Shen, Junfeng Liu, Tongling Shan, Fen Huang, Huibo Ning, Yanjun Kang, Zhibiao Yang, Li Cui, Jianguo Zhu and Xiuguo Hua

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:24

    Content type: Short report

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  15. VPgs are viral proteins linked to the 5' end of some viral genomes. Interactions between several VPgs and eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4Es are critical for plant infection. However, VPgs are no...

    Authors: Eugénie Hébrard, Yannick Bessin, Thierry Michon, Sonia Longhi, Vladimir N Uversky, François Delalande, Alain Van Dorsselaer, Pedro Romero, Jocelyne Walter, Nathalie Declerck and Denis Fargette

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:23

    Content type: Research

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  16. Influenza viruses attach to cells via sialic acid receptors. The viral neuraminidase (NA) is needed to remove sialic acids so that newly budded virions can disperse. Known mechanisms of resistance to NA inhibi...

    Authors: Shelly Gulati, David F Smith and Gillian M Air

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:22

    Content type: Research

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  17. Rhesus macaques infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) provide a model for human Lassa fever. Disease begins with flu-like symptoms and progresses rapidly with fatal consequences. Previously, ...

    Authors: Mahmoud Djavani, Oswald R Crasta, Yan Zhang, Juan Carlos Zapata, Bruno Sobral, Melissa G Lechner, Joseph Bryant, Harry Davis and Maria S Salvato

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:20

    Content type: Research

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  18. Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed...

    Authors: Wei Xie, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Hua Chang, Dekang Zhu, Qihui Luo, Renyong Jia and Xiaoyue Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:19

    Content type: Research

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  19. Gag protein from HIV-1 is a polyprotein of 55 kDa, which, during viral maturation, is cleaved to release matrix p17, core p24 and nucleocapsid proteins. The p24 antigen contains epitopes that prime helper CD4 ...

    Authors: Alberto J Donayre-Torres, Ernesto Esquivel-Soto, María deLourdes Gutiérrez-Xicoténcatl, Fernando R Esquivel-Guadarrama and Miguel A Gómez-Lim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:17

    Content type: Research

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  20. Earlier, we detected viral RNAs packaged in the porcine adenovirus (PAdV) -3 virions. Using Southern blot analysis, we further demonstrated that the viral RNAs were predominantly packaged in CsCl purified matu...

    Authors: Li Xing and Suresh K Tikoo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:16

    Content type: Research

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  21. Infectious bronchitis virus primarily induces a disease of the respiratory system, different IBV strains may show variable tissue tropisms and also affect the oviduct and the kidneys. Proventriculitis was also...

    Authors: Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Priscila Zlotowski, Jutta Veits, Günther M Keil and Jens P Teifke

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:15

    Content type: Research

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  22. Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting i...

    Authors: Andrew E Firth and John F Atkins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:14

    Content type: Short report

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  23. HCV is circulating as a heterogeneous group of quasispecies. It has been addressed that siRNA can inhibit HCV replication in-vitro using HCV clone and/or replicon which have only one genotype. The current stud...

    Authors: Abdel Rahman N Zekri, Abeer A Bahnassy, Hanaa M Alam El-Din and Hosny M Salama

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:13

    Content type: Research

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  24. This study describes the prevalence of culture-positive adenovirus serotypes in culture-positive respiratory specimens sent to the Central Public Health Laboratory, Toronto, Ontario, Canada for the period Sept...

    Authors: Rani Yeung, AliReza Eshaghi, Ernesto Lombos, Joanne Blair, Tony Mazzulli, Laura Burton and Steven J Drews

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:11

    Content type: Short report

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  25. The UL97 kinase has been shown to phosphorylate and inactivate the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and has three consensus Rb-binding motifs that might contribute to this activity. Recombinant viruses containing m...

    Authors: Rachel B Gill, Samuel L Frederick, Caroll B Hartline, Sunwen Chou and Mark N Prichard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:9

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activi...

    Authors: Melinda A Brindley, Mark P Widrlechner, Joe-Ann McCoy, Patricia Murphy, Cathy Hauck, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil Nikolau and Wendy Maury

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:8

    Content type: Research

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  27. Sci-B-Vac™ is a recombinant, hepatitis B vaccine derived from a mammalian cell line and containing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as well as preS1 and preS2 antigens. Few studies have been performed on th...

    Authors: Ulla B Hellström, Kazimierz Madalinski and Staffan PE Sylvan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:7

    Content type: Research

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  28. Affecting both livestock and humans, Rift Valley Fever is considered as one of the most important viral zoonoses in Africa. However, no licensed vaccines or effective treatments are yet available for human use...

    Authors: Nina Lagerqvist, Jonas Näslund, Åke Lundkvist, Michèle Bouloy, Clas Ahlm and Göran Bucht

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:6

    Content type: Research

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  29. Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the develo...

    Authors: Rachel Desailloud and Didier Hober

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:5

    Content type: Review

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  30. No one likes to feel like they have been manipulated, but in the case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune manipulation, we do not really have much choice. Whether you call it CMV immune modulation, manipulation, o...

    Authors: Mindy Miller-Kittrell and Tim E Sparer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:4

    Content type: Review

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  31. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are promising tools for gene therapy. Currently, their potential is limited by difficulties in producing high vector yields with which to generate transgene protein product...

    Authors: Shuiliang Shi, Scott A Mercer, Robert Dilley and Stephen B Trippel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:3

    Content type: Research

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  32. Even though two prophylactic vaccines against HPV are currently licensed, infections by the virus continue to be a major health problem mainly in developing countries. The cost of the vaccines limits wide-scal...

    Authors: Georgina Paz de la Rosa, Alberto Monroy-García, María de Lourdes Mora-García, Cristina Gehibie Reynaga Peña, Jorge Hernández-Montes, Benny Weiss-Steider and Miguel Angel Gómez Lim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:2

    Content type: Research

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  33. Dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) have been mostly circulating silently with dominant serotypes DENV-2 and DENV-3 in India. However recent times have marked an increase in DENV-1 circulation in yearly outbreaks. Ma...

    Authors: Himani Kukreti, Paban Kumar Dash, Manmohan Parida, Artee Chaudhary, Parag Saxena, RS Rautela, Veena Mittal, Mala Chhabra, D Bhattacharya, Shiv Lal, PV Lakshmana Rao and Arvind Rai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:1

    Content type: Research

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  34. The evolutionary success of La Crosse virus (LACV, family Bunyaviridae) is due to its ability to adapt to changing conditions through intramolecular genetic changes and segment reassortment. Vertical transmission...

    Authors: Sara M Reese, Bradley J Blitvich, Carol D Blair, Dave Geske, Barry J Beaty and William C Black IV

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:164

    Content type: Research

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  35. Cell entry and cell-to-cell spread of the highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) requires binding of the NiV G protein to cellular ephrin receptors and subsequent NiV F-mediated fusion. Since expression levels of...

    Authors: Lena Thiel, Sandra Diederich, Stephanie Erbar, Dennis Pfaff, Hellmut G Augustin and Andrea Maisner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:163

    Content type: Research

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  36. DSB, the 3-O-(3',3'dimethylsuccinyl) derivative of betulinic acid, blocks the last step of protease-mediated processing of HIV-1 Gag precursor (Pr55Gag), which leads to immature, noninfectious virions. When admin...

    Authors: Sandrina DaFonseca, Pascale Coric, Bernard Gay, Saw See Hong, Serge Bouaziz and Pierre Boulanger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:162

    Content type: Research

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  37. Sera from convalescent Lassa fever patients often contains antibodies to Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein 1 (GP1), and glycoprotein 2 (GP2); Immunization of non-human primates with viral vectors expressing the ...

    Authors: Megan M Illick, Luis M Branco, Joseph N Fair, Kerry A Illick, Alex Matschiner, Randal Schoepp, Robert F Garry and Mary C Guttieri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:161

    Content type: Research

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  38. Positive selection pressure acting on protein-coding sequences is usually inferred when the rate of nonsynonymous substitution is greater than the synonymous rate. However, purifying selection acting directly ...

    Authors: Nobubelo K Ngandu, Konrad Scheffler, Penny Moore, Zenda Woodman, Darren Martin and Cathal Seoighe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:160

    Content type: Research

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  39. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. Nothing is known about the circulation of this virus in central Africa. We evaluated theref...

    Authors: Mélanie Caron and Mirdad Kazanji

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:158

    Content type: Short report

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  40. An infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas DPI (Ark DPI) virulent strain was sequenced, analyzed and compared with many different IBV strains and coronaviruses. The genome of Ark DPI consists of 27,620 nucleotide...

    Authors: Arun Ammayappan, Chitra Upadhyay, Jack Gelb Jr and Vikram N Vakharia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:157

    Content type: Short report

    Published on: