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  1. The ubiquitin system functions in a variety of cellular processes including protein turnover, protein sorting and trafficking. Many viruses exploit the cellular ubiquitin system to facilitate viral replication...

    Authors: Yoko Ushijima, Fumi Goshima, Hiroshi Kimura and Yukihiro Nishiyama
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:168
  2. An outbreak of orf virus infection in dairy goats in Korea was investigated. Suspected samples of the skin and lip of affected goats were sent to the laboratory for more exact diagnosis. Orf virus was detected...

    Authors: Jae-Ku Oem, In-Soon Roh, Kyung-Hyun Lee, Kyoung-Ki Lee, Hye-Ryoung Kim, Young-Hwa Jean and O-Soo Lee
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:167
  3. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototypic rhabdovirus and the best studied member of the order Mononegavirales. There is now compelling evidence that enveloped virions released from infected cells carry ...

    Authors: Megan Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Sun-Il Hwang and Valery Z Grdzelishvili
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:166
  4. Currently, there are no conclusive results on the efficacy of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) plus lamivudine (LAM) in LAM-resistant patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The aim of study was to evaluate the effic...

    Authors: En-Qiang Chen, Li-Chun Wang, Jun Lei, Lu Xu and Hong Tang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:163
  5. Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astr...

    Authors: Stacy R Finkbeiner, Lori R Holtz, Yanfang Jiang, Priya Rajendran, Carl J Franz, Guoyan Zhao, Gagandeep Kang and David Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:161
  6. Strains of the astaxanthin producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous have been isolated from different cold regions around the earth, and the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements was described in ...

    Authors: Marcelo Baeza, Mario Sanhueza, Oriana Flores, Vicente Oviedo, Diego Libkind and Víctor Cifuentes
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:160
  7. Reverse transcriptases from HIV-1 and MuLV respectively prefer Mg2+ and Mn2+ for their polymerase activity, with variable fidelity, on both RNA and DNA templates. The function of the RNase H domain with respect t...

    Authors: Tanaji T Talele, Alok Upadhyay and Virendra N Pandey
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:159
  8. Avian influenza viruses, belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, possess distinct combinations of hemagglutinin (H) and the neuraminidase (N) surface glycoproteins. Typing of both H and N antigens is essenti...

    Authors: Chitra Upadhyay, Arun Ammayappan and Vikram N Vakharia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:158
  9. Although the presence of Asia 2 group of canine distemper virus (CDV) was known by the sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin (H) gene, the fusion (F) protein gene sequence of Asia 2 group had n...

    Authors: Serageldeen Sultan, Nataya Charoenvisal, Nguyen Thi Lan, Ryoji Yamaguchi, Ken Maeda and Kazushige Kai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:157
  10. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although combined interferon-α-ribavirin therapy is effective for about 50% of the patients with HCV, better therapie...

    Authors: Hitoshi Suzuki, Norihiko Matsumoto, Tomoyuki Suzuki, Myint OO Chang and Hiroshi Takaku
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:156
  11. To explore the epidemiologic and clinical features of, and interactions among, multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). A prospective study of children a...

    Authors: Dan Peng, Dongchi Zhao, Jingtao Liu, Xia Wang, Kun Yang, Hong Xicheng, Yang Li and Fubing Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:155
  12. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a global threat to public health. Current therapies that directly target the virus often are rendered ineffective due to the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants. An...

    Authors: Hanwen Mao, Hanson Chen, Zena Fesseha, Shaojing Chang, Huong Ung-Medoff, Jessica Van Dyke, Manu Kohli, Wu-Bo Li, Michael Goldblatt and Michael S Kinch
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:154
  13. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a problem in several regions of the world with limited resources. Blood samples dried on filter paper (DBS) have been successfully used to diagnose and monitor several infe...

    Authors: Rosalia Lira, Angelica Maldonado-Rodriguez, Othon Rojas-Montes, Martha Ruiz-Tachiquin, Rocio Torres-Ibarra, Carlos Cano-Dominguez, Hilda Valdez-Salazar, Alejandro Gomez-Delgado, Onofre Muñoz and Ma-Teresa Alvarez-Muñoz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:153
  14. The Tomato leaf curl virus (ToLCV) belongs to the genus begomoviridae of the family Geminiviridae. The 2.7 kb DNA genome of the virus encodes all the information required for viral DNA replication, transcription ...

    Authors: Prerna Pandey, Nirupam R Choudhury and Sunil K Mukherjee
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:152
  15. Ectromelia virus, a member of the Orthopox genus, is the causative agent of the highly infectious mousepox disease. Previous studies have shown that different poxviruses induce cell-cell fusion which is manife...

    Authors: Noam Erez, Nir Paran, Galia Maik-Rachline, Boaz Politi, Tomer Israely, Paula Schnider, Pinhas Fuchs, Sharon Melamed and Shlomo Lustig
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:151
  16. The human noroviruses are a highly diverse group of viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome encoding a single major structural protein (VP1), which has a hypervariable domain (P2 domain) as the most exposed ...

    Authors: David J Allen, Rob Noad, Dhan Samuel, Jim J Gray, Polly Roy and Miren Iturriza-Gómara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:150
  17. Enteroviruses can shed in feces for several weeks, so many excrete viruses can remain infectious for a long time in environment. Therefore, by detecting enteroviruses in environmental specimens and sewage, we ...

    Authors: Mohammad Kargar, Sara Sadeghipour and Rakhshandeh Nategh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:149
  18. We conducted molecular analyses to confirm four clustering HIV-1 infections (Patient A, B, C & D) in Guangzhou, China. These cases were identified by epidemiological investigation and suspected to acquire the ...

    Authors: Zhigang Han, Tommy WC Leung, Jinkou Zhao, Ming Wang, Lirui Fan, Kai Li, Xinli Pang, Zhenbo Liang, Wilina WL Lim and Huifang Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:148
  19. The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and the possible risk factors among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur State ...

    Authors: Mustafa Abdalla Ali Abou, Yassir Mohammed Eltahir and Abdelwahid Saeed Ali
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:146
  20. Borna disease virus (BDV) is the type member of the Bornaviridae, a family of viruses that induce often fatal neurological diseases in horses, sheep and other animals, and have been proposed to have roles in c...

    Authors: Courtney E Garry and Robert F Garry
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:145
  21. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of the selected two Th...

    Authors: Alongkorn Amonsin, Roongtham Kedkovid, Suphasawatt Puranaveja, Piya Wongyanin, Sanipa Suradhat and Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:143
  22. Goose parvovirus (GPV) is a Dependovirus associated with latent infection and mortality in geese. Currently, it severely affects geese production worldwide. The objective of this study was to develop a fluorescen...

    Authors: Jin-Long Yang, An-Chun Cheng, Ming-Shu Wang, Kang-Cheng Pan, Min Li, Yu-Fei Guo, Chuan-Feng Li, De-Kang Zhu and Xiao-Yue Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:142
  23. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV) have been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks. Some species of these genera are able to infect humans and domestic animals, causing serious economic losses ...

    Authors: Jônatas S Abrahão, Larissa S Lima, Felipe L Assis, Pedro A Alves, André T Silva-Fernandes, Marcela MG Cota, Vanessa M Ferreira, Rafael K Campos, Carlos Mazur, Zélia IP Lobato, Giliane S Trindade and Erna G Kroon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:140
  24. Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine ...

    Authors: Linnzi M Furman, Walid S Maaty, Lena K Petersen, Khalil Ettayebi, Michele E Hardy and Brian Bothner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:139
  25. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected o...

    Authors: Chin-Fen Yang, Chiaoyin K Wang, Sharon J Tollefson, Rohith Piyaratna, Linda D Lintao, Marla Chu, Alexis Liem, Mary Mark, Richard R Spaete, James E Crowe Jr. and John V Williams
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:138
  26. Type A influenza viruses are important pathogens of humans, birds, pigs, horses and some marine mammals. The viruses have evolved into multiple complicated subtypes, lineages and sublineages. Recently, the phy...

    Authors: Ji-Ming Chen, Ying-Xue Sun, Ji-Wang Chen, Shuo Liu, Jian-Min Yu, Chao-Jian Shen, Xiang-Dong Sun and Dong Peng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:137
  27. Measles morbidity and mortality decreased significantly after measles vaccine was introduced into China in 1965. From 1995 to 2004, average annual measles incidence decreased to 5.6 cases per 100,000 populatio...

    Authors: Yixin Ji, Yan Zhang, Songtao Xu, Zhen Zhu, Shuyan Zuo, Xiaohong Jiang, Peishan Lu, Changyin Wang, Yong Liang, Huanying Zheng, Yang Liu, Naiying Mao, Xiaofeng Liang, David Alexander Featherstone, Paul A Rota, William J Bellini…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:135
  28. Torque teno virus (TTV) is a circular, single-stranded DNA virus that chronically infects healthy individuals of all ages worldwide. There is a lot of data on the prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of TTV in...

    Authors: Evgeny V Vasilyev, Dmitry Y Trofimov, Alexander G Tonevitsky, Valery V Ilinsky, Dmitriy O Korostin and Denis V Rebrikov
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:134
  29. The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is quite different in regions of Europe (biennial epidemics in alternating cycles of approximately 9 and 15 months) than in the Western Hemisphere (ann...

    Authors: Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana Vojnovic, Jasna Cepin-Bogovic, Ana Bace, Jadranka Bozikov, Robert C Welliver, Ulrich Wahn and Ljiljana Cebalo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:133
  30. During the outbreak of SARS in 2002/3, a prototype virus was isolated from a patient in Frankfurt/Germany (strain Frankfurt-1). As opposed to all other SARS-Coronavirus strains, Frankfurt-1 has a 45-nucleotide...

    Authors: Susanne Pfefferle, Verena Krähling, Vanessa Ditt, Klaus Grywna, Elke Mühlberger and Christian Drosten
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:131
  31. The variability within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome has formed the basis for several genotyping methods and used widely for HCV genotyping worldwide.

    Authors: Muhammad Idrees, Sadia Butt, Zunaira Awan, Mahwish Aftab, Bushra Khubaib, Irshad-ur Rehman, Madiha Akram, Sobia Manzoor, Haji Akbar, Shazia Rafiqe and Sheikh Riazuddin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:130
  32. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype appears to show varying geographic distribution. Molecular epidemiological study of HBV in particular areas in Indonesia is still limited. This study was aimed to identify the ...

    Authors: Andi Utama, Theresia I Octavia, Rama Dhenni, Upik A Miskad, Irawan Yusuf and Susan Tai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:128
  33. In general, enveloped viruses are highly dependent on their lipid envelope for entry into host cells. Here, we demonstrated that during the course of virus maturation, a significant proportion of human herpesv...

    Authors: Akiko Kawabata, Huamin Tang, Honglan Huang, Koichi Yamanishi and Yasuko Mori
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:127
  34. Avian influenza viruses of the H7 subtype have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry and represent a significant threat to public health due to their propensity to occasionally transmit directly from b...

    Authors: Haichen Song, Hongquan Wan, Yonas Araya and Daniel R Perez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:126
  35. Influenza virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality and has marked social and economic impacts throughout the world. The influenza surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (...

    Authors: Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Prapon Wilairat, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Tadanobu Takahashi, Takashi Suzuki, Morihiro Ito, Yasuhiko Ito, Masato Tashiro and Yasuo Suzuki
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:124
  36. The complement system is one of the most potent weapons of innate immunity. It is not only a mechanism for direct protection against invading pathogens but it also interacts with the adaptive immunity to optim...

    Authors: Yuanyong Xu, Chuanfu Zhang, Leili Jia, Cuirong Wen, Huihui Liu, Yong Wang, Yansong Sun, Liuyu Huang, Yusen Zhou and Hongbin Song
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:123
  37. Infection of the lower airways by rhinovirus, a member of the picornavirus family, is an important cause of wheezing illnesses in infants, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus-induced ...

    Authors: Louis A Rosenthal, Svetlana P Amineva, Renee J Szakaly, Robert F Lemanske Jr, James E Gern and Ronald L Sorkness
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:122
  38. On the epidemiology of influenza: reply to Radonovich LJ, Martinello RA, Hodgson M, Milton DK, Nardell EA. Influenza and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Virol J. 2008, 5:149

    Authors: John J Cannell, Michael Zasloff, Cedric F Garland, Robert Scragg and Edward Giovannucci
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:121
  39. DNA was extracted from lamb lymphocytes that were infected in vivo with a BLV strain after inoculation with the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a persistently sero-indeterminate, low viral load, BLV-in...

    Authors: Syamalima Dube, Lynn Abbott, Dipak K Dube, Guillermina Dolcini, Silvina Gutierrez, Carolina Ceriani, Marcela Juliarena, Jorge Ferrer, Raisa Perzova and Bernard J Poiesz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:120
  40. Optimisation of genes has been shown to be beneficial for expression of proteins in a range of applications. Optimisation has increased protein expression levels through improved codon usage of the genes and a...

    Authors: Amanda J Williams, Lyn M O'Brien, Robert J Phillpotts and Stuart D Perkins
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:118