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  1. Antigenic chimeric viruses have previously been generated in which the structural genes of recombinant dengue virus type 4 (rDEN4) have been replaced with those derived from DEN2 or DEN3. Two vaccine candidate...

    Authors: Joseph E Blaney Jr., Neeraj S Sathe, Christopher T Hanson, Cai Yen Firestone, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:23
  2. Coronaviruses are an important cause of infectious diseases in humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and have the continued potential for emergence from animal species. A major factor in ...

    Authors: Victor C Chu, Lisa J McElroy, Jed M Aronson, Trisha J Oura, Carole E Harbison, Beverley E Bauman and Gary R Whittaker
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:20
  3. The methylation status at the human papilloma virus (HPV) genome found in pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions suggests that neoplastic transformation can be suppressed by gene hypermethylation, whereas ...

    Authors: Erick de la Cruz-Hernández, Enrique Pérez-Cárdenas, Adriana Contreras-Paredes, David Cantú, Alejandro Mohar, Marcela Lizano and Alfonso Dueñas-González
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:18
  4. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, is an important mosquito-borne human pathogen. Its envelope glycoprotein (E) is the major determinant of the pathogenicity and host immune r...

    Authors: Fuquan Zhang, Wenyu Ma, Li Zhang, Marlen Aasa-Chapman and Hongyi Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:17
  5. HCV is one of the major health problems in Egypt, where it is highly prevalent. Genotype 4 is the most common genotype of HCV and its response to treatment is still a controversy.

    Authors: Abdel Rahman N Zekri, Hanaa M Alam El-Din, Abeer A Bahnassy, Mohsen M Khaled, Ashraf Omar, Inas Fouad, Mahmoud El-Hefnewi, Fouad Thakeb and Mostafa El-Awady
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:16
  6. This report describes the genetic characterization of 297 wild-type measles viruses that were isolated in 24 provinces of China between 1995 and 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene sequences showed that ...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Zhen Zhu, Paul A Rota, Xiaohong Jiang, Jiayu Hu, Jianguo Wang, Wei Tang, Zhenying Zhang, Congyong Li, Changyin Wang, Tongzhan Wang, Lei Zheng, Hong Tian, Hua Ling, Chunfang Zhao, Yan Ma…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:14
  7. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a fish orthomyxovirus that has recently been assigned to the new genus Isavirus within the family Orthomyxoviridae. It possesses the major functional characteristic...

    Authors: Samuel T Workenhe, Dorota W Wadowska, Glenda M Wright, Molly JT Kibenge and Frederick SB Kibenge
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:13
  8. The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend ha...

    Authors: Jenny Keller, Nicolas Leulliot, Christian Cambillau, Valérie Campanacci, Stéphanie Porciero, David Prangishvili, Patrick Forterre, Diego Cortez, Sophie Quevillon-Cheruel and Herman van Tilbeurgh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:12
  9. Members of the family Iridoviridae can cause severe diseases resulting in significant economic and environmental losses. Very little is known about how iridoviruses cause disease in their host. In the present stu...

    Authors: Heather E Eaton, Julie Metcalf, Emily Penny, Vasily Tcherepanov, Chris Upton and Craig R Brunetti
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:11
  10. Whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (genus Begomovirus) are phytopathogens that cause heavy losses to crops worldwide. Efforts to engineer resistance against these viruses are focused mainly on silencing of comple...

    Authors: Muhammad Mubin, Shahid Mansoor, Mazhar Hussain and Yusuf Zafar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:10
  11. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA-containing virus with 4 genes, C, S, X and P. The S gene codes for the surface antigen (HBsAg), which contains the "a" determinant, the main region for induction of a protec...

    Authors: Martha-Eugenia Ruiz-Tachiquín, Hilda-Alicia Valdez-Salazar, Vicencio Juárez-Barreto, Margarita Dehesa-Violante, Javier Torres, Onofre Muñoz-Hernández and Ma-Teresa Alvarez-Muñoz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:6
  12. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) exclusively selects and utilizes tRNALys,3 as the primer for initiation of reverse transcription. Several elements within the TΨC stem loop of tRNALys,3 are postulated to be i...

    Authors: Wanfeng Yu, Anna McCulley and Casey D Morrow
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:5
  13. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) preferentially selects tRNALys,3 as the primer for reverse transcription. HIV-1 can be forced to select alternative tRNAs through mutation in the primer-binding site (PBS) and...

    Authors: Na Ni, Wenqin Xu and Casey D Morrow
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:4
  14. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a major cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sexual acquisition and transmission. In the present study, we investigated whether HIV-1 and HSV-2 may int...

    Authors: Jérôme LeGoff, Hicham Bouhlal, Maxime Lecerf, Christophe Klein, Hakim Hocini, Ali Si-Mohamed, Martin Muggeridge and Laurent Bélec
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:2
  15. Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus distinguished by its ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the Para...

    Authors: Jared R Patch, Gary Crameri, Lin-Fa Wang, Bryan T Eaton and Christopher C Broder
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:1
  16. The genome of coronaviruses contains structural and non-structural genes, including several so-called accessory genes. All group 1b coronaviruses encode a single accessory protein between the spike and envelop...

    Authors: Ronald Dijkman, Maarten F Jebbink, Berry Wilbrink, Krzysztof Pyrc, Hans L Zaaijer, Philip D Minor, Sally Franklin, Ben Berkhout, Volker Thiel and Lia van der Hoek
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:106
  17. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can utilize multiple pathways to enter host cells. The factors that determine which route is taken are not clear. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express glycoprotein D (gD)-b...

    Authors: Mark G Delboy, Jennifer L Patterson, Aimee M Hollander and Anthony V Nicola
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:105
  18. HIV-1 entry into cells is a multifaceted process involving target cell CD4 and the chemokine receptors, CXCR4 or CCR5. The lipid composition of the host cell plays a significant role in the HIV fusion process ...

    Authors: Sherimay Ablan, Satinder S Rawat, Mathias Viard, Ji Ming Wang, Anu Puri and Robert Blumenthal
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:104
  19. The duration of treatment for HCV infection is partly indicated by the genotype of the virus. For studies of disease transmission, vaccine design, and surveillance for novel variants, subtype-level classificat...

    Authors: Peter T Hraber, William Fischer, William J Bruno, Thomas Leitner and Carla Kuiken
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:103
  20. Matrix protein 2 (M2) is an integral tetrameric membrane protein of influenza A virus (IAV). Its ectodomain (M2e) shows remarkably little diversity amongst human IAV strains. As M2e-specific antibodies (Abs) h...

    Authors: JingQi Feng, Manxin Zhang, Krystyna Mozdzanowska, Darya Zharikova, Henry Hoff, William Wunner, Robert B Couch and Walter Gerhard
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:102
  21. The amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLV-A's) are naturally occurring, exogenously acquired gammaretroviruses that are indigenous to the Southern California wild mice. These viruses replicate in a wide ra...

    Authors: Thomas M Howard, Zhijuan Sheng, Mingwu Wang, Yongchun Wu and Suraiya Rasheed
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:101
  22. The antiviral action of interferon alpha targets the 5' untranslated region (UTR) used by hepatitis C virus (HCV) to translate protein by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism. Although this sequenc...

    Authors: Ramesh Prabhu, Robert F Garry and Srikanta Dash
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:100

    The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:155

  23. Despite the continuous shedding of HIV infected blood into the oral cavity and the detectable presence of the AIDS virus at a high frequency, human saliva is reported to inhibit oral transmission of HIV throug...

    Authors: Habtom H Habte, Anwar S Mall, Corena de Beer, Zoë E Lotz and Delawir Kahn
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:99
  24. Little is known at the molecular level concerning the differences and/or similarities between alcohol and hepatitis C virus induced liver disease. Global transcriptional profiling using oligonucleotide microar...

    Authors: Sharon L Lederer, Kathie-Anne Walters, Sean Proll, Bryan Paeper, Shahar Robinzon, Loreto Boix, Nelson Fausto, Jordi Bruix and Michael G Katze
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:98
  25. T-cell activation leads to signaling pathways that ultimately result in induction of gene transcription from the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter. We hypothesized that the IL-2 promoter or its synthetic derivativ...

    Authors: Diana E Jaalouk, Laurence Lejeune, Clément Couture and Jacques Galipeau
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:97
  26. Recombination between hepatitis C single stranded RNA viruses is a rare event. Natural viable intragenotypic and intergenotypic recombinants between 1b-1a, 1a-1c and 2k-1b, 2i-6p, respectively, have been repor...

    Authors: Isabelle Moreau, Susan Hegarty, John Levis, Patrick Sheehy, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh and Liam J Fanning
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:95
  27. The Z protein is the matrix protein of arenaviruses and has been identified as the main driving force for budding. Both LCMV and Lassa virus Z proteins bud from cells in the absence of other viral proteins as ...

    Authors: Thomas Strecker, Anna Maisa, Stephane Daffis, Robert Eichler, Oliver Lenz and Wolfgang Garten
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:93
  28. A major DHF outbreak occurred in Delhi in 1996. Following this another outbreak was reported in the year 2003. In the years 2004 and 2005, though no outbreak was reported, a definitely higher number of samples...

    Authors: Ekta Gupta, Lalit Dar, Geetanjali Kapoor and Shobha Broor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:92
  29. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, causing widespread chronic infections which are largely uncontrolled by currently available vaccines or other antivir...

    Authors: William A Cafruny, Richard G Duman, Grace HW Wong, Suleman Said, Pam Ward-Demo, Raymond RR Rowland and Eric A Nelson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:90
  30. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a significant public health burden and small animal models are needed to study the pathology and immunobiology of the virus. In effort to develop experimental HCV mouse models, we sc...

    Authors: Susan L Uprichard, Josan Chung, Francis V Chisari and Takaji Wakita
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:89
  31. Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vacci...

    Authors: Guiyun Li, Nanhai Chen, Zehua Feng, R Mark L Buller, John Osborne, Tiara Harms, Inger Damon, Chris Upton and David J Esteban
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:88
  32. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. HCV circulates in vivo as a complex population of different but closely ...

    Authors: María P Moreno, Didier Casane, Lilia López and Juan Cristina
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:87
  33. The APOBEC3G protein represents a novel innate defense mechanism against retroviral infection. It facilitates the deamination of the cytosine residues in the single stranded cDNA intermediate during early step...

    Authors: Melanie Kremer, Yasemin Suezer, Yolanda Martinez-Fernandez, Carsten Münk, Gerd Sutter and Barbara S Schnierle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:86
  34. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the oral cavity plays an important role in its horizontal transmission and in causing viral-associated oral diseases such as gingivitis. However, little is currently k...

    Authors: Rong Hai, Alice Chu, Hongjian Li, Sean Umamoto, Paul Rider and Fenyong Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:84
  35. Infections with papillomaviruses induce type-specific immune responses, mainly directed against the major capsid protein, L1. Based on the propensity of the L1 protein to self-assemble into virus-like particle...

    Authors: Stefanie D Roth, Martin Sapp, Rolf E Streeck and Hans-Christoph Selinka
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:83
  36. We recently reported the isolation and in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus. These isolates were termed CIMM-HCV and analyzed to establish genotypes and subtypes, which are reported elsewhere. During this an...

    Authors: Dennis Revie, Michael O Alberti, Ravi S Braich, David Bayles, John G Prichard and S Zaki Salahuddin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:82