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  1. Content type: Research

    Avian metapneumoviruses (aMPV) cause an upper respiratory disease with low mortality, but high morbidity primarily in commercial turkeys. There are three types of aMPV (A, B, C) of which the C type is found on...

    Authors: Rene Alvarez and Bruce S Seal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:31

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  2. Content type: Research

    Poxviruses are important both as pathogens and as vaccine vectors. Poxvirus genomes (150–350 kb) consist of a single linear dsDNA molecule; the two polynucleotide strands are joined by short hairpin loops. The...

    Authors: Melissa Da Silva and Chris Upton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:30

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    Although PCR and RT-PCR provided a valuable approach for detection of pathogens, the high level of sensitivity of these assays also makes them prone to false positive results. In addition to cross-contaminatio...

    Authors: Steven B Kleiboeker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:29

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  4. Content type: Research

    We report the presence of three new O1 ElTor vibriophages named AS1, AS2 and AS3, isolated from the sewage and pond waters of the outskirts of Kolkata. A few phages, named AS4, with hexagonal heads and abnorma...

    Authors: Anindito Sen and Amar N Ghosh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:28

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  5. Content type: Research

    Phage N5 is one of the phages of Vibrio cholerae serovar O1 biotype El Tor (Ghosh, A. N., Ansari, M. Q., and Dutta, G. C. Isolation and morphological characterization of El Tor cholera phages. J. Gen. Virol. 70: ...

    Authors: Anindito Sen and Amar N Ghosh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:27

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  6. Content type: Research

    Early interaction of dengue virus and monocyte/macrophages could be an important feature for virus dissemination after its initial entry via the mosquito vector. Since ultrastructural analysis of this interact...

    Authors: Jesus A Mosquera, Juan Pablo Hernandez, Nereida Valero, Luz Marina Espina and German J Añez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:26

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  7. Content type: Research

    Rotavirus genotyping is performed by using reverse transcription PCR with type-specific-primers. Because the high rotavirus mutation rate generates an extensive genomic variation, different G-type-specific pri...

    Authors: Mustafizur Rahman, Rasheda Sultana, Goutam Podder, Abu SG Faruque, Jelle Matthijnssens, Khalequz Zaman, Robert F Breiman, David A Sack, Marc Van Ranst and Tasnim Azim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:24

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  8. Content type: Research

    Replication of the vaccinia virus genome occurs in cytoplasmic factory areas and is dependent on the virus-encoded DNA polymerase and at least four additional viral proteins. DNA synthesis appears to start nea...

    Authors: Frank S De Silva and Bernard Moss

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:23

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  9. Content type: Research

    Poxviruses encode a range of immunomodulatory genes to subvert or evade the challenges posed by the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the inactivated poxviruses possessed immunostimulating capacit...

    Authors: Abdel-Aziz S Abu-EL-Saad and Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:22

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  10. Content type: Research

    Cassava is infected by numerous geminiviruses in Africa and India that cause devastating losses to poor farmers. We here describe the molecular diversity of seven representative cassava mosaic geminiviruses (C...

    Authors: J Ndunguru, JP Legg, TAS Aveling, G Thompson and CM Fauquet

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:21

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  11. Content type: Research

    Amino acid sequence analyses indicate that the Soilborne wheat mosaic virus (SBWMV) 19K protein is a cysteine-rich protein (CRP) and shares sequence homology with CRPs derived from furo-, hordei-, peclu- and tobr...

    Authors: Jeannie Te, Ulrich Melcher, Amanda Howard and Jeanmarie Verchot-Lubicz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:18

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  12. Content type: Research

    The interferon (IFN)-induced, dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, PKR, plays a key regulatory role in the IFN-mediated anti-viral response by blocking translation in the infected cell by phosphory...

    Authors: Liliana Endo-Munoz, Tammra Warby, David Harrich and Nigel A J McMillan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:17

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  13. Content type: Research

    We examined the association and interaction between maternal viral load and antibodies in vertical transmission of HIV in a non-randomized prospective study of 43 HIV-1 infected pregnant women who attended the...

    Authors: Paul Kamara, Loyda Melendez-Guerrero, Miguel Arroyo, Heidi Weiss and Pauline Jolly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:15

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  14. Content type: Research

    Recent studies have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) synergizes with the innate IFNs (IFN-α and IFN-β) to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication in vitro. To determine whether this phenomenon ...

    Authors: Bruno Sainz Jr, Heather L LaMarca, Robert F Garry and Cindy A Morris

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:14

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  15. Content type: Research

    Human sapovirus (SaV), an agent of human gastroenteritis, cannot be grown in cell culture, but expression of the recombinant capsid protein (rVP1) in a baculovirus expression system results in the formation of...

    Authors: Grant S Hansman, Kazuhiko Katayama, Tomoichiro Oka, Katsuro Natori and Naokazu Takeda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:13

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  16. Content type: Research

    Tula hantavirus carrying recombinant S RNA segment (recTULV) grew in a cell culture to the same titers as the original cell adapted variant but presented no real match to the parental virus. Our data showed th...

    Authors: Angelina Plyusnina and Alexander Plyusnin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:12

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  17. Content type: Research

    Oral infection of infant macaques with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a useful animal model to test interventions to reduce postnatal HIV transmission via breast-feeding. We previously demonstrated tha...

    Authors: Jennifer L Greenier, Koen KA Van Rompay, David Montefiori, Patricia Earl, Bernard Moss and Marta L Marthas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:11

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  18. Content type: Research

    Immunor (IM28), an analog of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) by inhibiting reverse transcriptase. We assessed the ability of IM28 to inhibit the cell-cell fu...

    Authors: Donatien Mavoungou, Virginie Poaty-Mavoungou, Marie-Yvonne Akoume, Brice Ongali and Elie Mavoungou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:9

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  19. Content type: Research

    Inteins are "protein introns" that remove themselves from their host proteins through an autocatalytic protein-splicing. After their discovery, inteins have been quickly identified in all domains of life, but ...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Ogata, Didier Raoult and Jean-Michel Claverie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:8

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  20. Content type: Research

    Ten potential reference genes were compared for their use in experiments investigating cellular mRNA expression of virus infected cells. Human cell lines were infected with Cytomegalovirus, Human Herpesvirus-6...

    Authors: Aleksandar Radonić, Stefanie Thulke, Hi-Gung Bae, Marcel A Müller, Wolfgang Siegert and Andreas Nitsche

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:7

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  21. Content type: Research

    The enteric subgroup F adenoviruses type 40 (Ad40) and 41 (Ad41) are the second most important cause of acute infantile gastroenteritis after rotaviruses. Repeated community outbreaks have been associated with...

    Authors: Kalina T Zlateva, Piet Maes, Mustafizur Rahman and Marc Van Ranst

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:6

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  22. Content type: Research

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes bronchiolitis in infants and children, which can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients. The BALB/c mouse, currently used as a model for studying ...

    Authors: Xiaoyuan Kong, Gary R Hellermann, Geoff Patton, Mukesh Kumar, Aruna Behera, Timothy S Randall, Jian Zhang, Richard F Lockey and Shyam S Mohapatra

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:3

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  23. Content type: Methodology

    Two distinct lineages of rhadinoviruses related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) have been identified in macaques and other Old World non-human primates. We have developed a real-time qua...

    Authors: A Gregory Bruce, Angela M Bakke, Margaret E Thouless and Timothy M Rose

    Citation: Virology Journal 2005 2:2

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  24. Content type: Research

    Hz-2V infection of female Helicoverpa zea moths is manifested as insects that are either sterile "agonadal" individuals with malformed reproductive tissues or fertile asymptomatic carriers which are capable of tr...

    Authors: John P Burand and Christopher P Rallis

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:15

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  25. Content type: Methodology

    Genetic variability in viral populations is usually estimated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods in which the relative abundance of each amplicon is assumed to be proportional to the fre...

    Authors: Maria Alma Bracho, Inmaculada García-Robles, Nuria Jiménez, Manuela Torres-Puente, Andrés Moya and Fernando González-Candelas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:13

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  26. Content type: Research

    Genital herpes (GH) is a recurrent sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes significant morbidity and is also the major source of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cases of neonatal herpes. Vaccination is ...

    Authors: Jianmin Chen, Sanat K Davé and Anthony Simmons

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:11

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  27. Content type: Short report

    West Nile virus (WNV) recently became a major public health concern in North America, the Middle East, and Europe. In contrast with the investigations of the North-American isolates, the neurovirulence propert...

    Authors: Marianne Lucas, Marie-Pascale Frenkiel, Tomoji Mashimo, Jean-Louis Guénet, Vincent Deubel, Philippe Desprès and Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:9

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  28. Content type: Research

    The reovirus M1 genome segment encodes the μ2 protein, a structurally minor component of the viral core, which has been identified as a transcriptase cofactor, nucleoside and RNA triphosphatase, and microtubul...

    Authors: Peng Yin, Natalie D Keirstead, Teresa J Broering, Michelle M Arnold, John SL Parker, Max L Nibert and Kevin M Coombs

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:6

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  29. Content type: Research

    Inflammatory cytokines and infiltrating T cells are readily detected in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infected mouse cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG) during the acute phase of infection, and certain cytokines c...

    Authors: W James Cook, Martha F Kramer, Russell M Walker, Timothy J Burwell, Holly A Holman, Donald M Coen and David M Knipe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:5

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  30. Content type: Research

    Mortality rates have differed during distemper outbreaks among free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor) living around a large Chicago-area zoo, and appeared higher in year 2001 than in 1998 and 2000. We hypothesized...

    Authors: John A Lednicky, Jean Dubach, Michael J Kinsel, Thomas P Meehan, Maurizio Bocchetta, Laura L Hungerford, Nicolene A Sarich, Kelley E Witecki, Michael D Braid, Casandra Pedrak and Christiane M Houde

    Citation: Virology Journal 2004 1:2

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