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  1. In the molecular world, researchers act as detectives working hard to unravel the mysteries surrounding cells. One of the researchers' greatest tools in this endeavor has been Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectro...

    Authors: Phelps J Lambert, Audy G Whitman, Ossie F Dyson and Shaw M Akula

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:51

    Content type: Review

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  2. There has been a recent resurgent interest in bacteriophage biology. Research was initiated to examine Campylobacter jejuni-specific bacteriophage in the Russian Federation to develop alternative control measures...

    Authors: EL Zhilenkov, VM Popova, DV Popov, LY Zavalsky, EA Svetoch, NJ Stern and BS Seal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:50

    Content type: Research

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  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive neurological disorder caused by the persistent infection with measles virus (MV). Despite much research into SSPE, its pathology remains...

    Authors: M Kühne Simmonds, DWG Brown and L Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:49

    Content type: Research

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  4. The abundance and the conservation of the repeated element (rep) genes in Ichnoviruses genomes suggest that this gene family plays an important role in viral cycles. In the Ichnovirus associated with the wasp Hyp...

    Authors: L Galibert, G Devauchelle, F Cousserans, J Rocher, P Cérutti, M Barat-Houari, P Fournier and AN Volkoff

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:48

    Content type: Research

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  5. Nipah virus is a zoonotic virus isolated from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The virus causes infections in humans, pigs, and several other domestic animals. It has also been isolated from fruit bats. The pa...

    Authors: Li-Yen Chang, AR Mohd Ali, Sharifah Syed Hassan and Sazaly AbuBakar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:47

    Content type: Research

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  6. A review of Pap smear diagnoses from a reference laboratory in Grand Forks, North Dakota over a 3-year period (07/00 to 10/03) revealed a two-fold higher rate of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in a...

    Authors: Lata Balakrishnan, Ryan Clauson, Timothy Weiland, Michelle Bianco and Barry Milavetz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:46

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Recent studies have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-γ) synergizes with IFN-α/β to inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication in vitro. Since IFN response represents an early host defense event again...

    Authors: Erina Petrera and Celia E Coto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:45

    Content type: Research

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  8. The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) ICP0 protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is encoded within the HSV-1 latency-associated locus. When ICP0 is not synthesized, the HSV-1 genome is acutely susceptible...

    Authors: William P Halford, Carla Weisend, Jennifer Grace, Mark Soboleski, Daniel JJ Carr, John W Balliet, Yumi Imai, Todd P Margolis and Bryan M Gebhardt

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:44

    Content type: Research

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  9. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with lymphoid malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), and can transform human B cells in vitro. EBV-harboring cell lines are widely used to investigate lymph...

    Authors: Michele Bernasconi, Christoph Berger, Jürg A Sigrist, Athos Bonanomi, Jens Sobek, Felix K Niggli and David Nadal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:43

    Content type: Methodology

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  10. Lassa virus glycoprotein is synthesised as a precursor (preGP-C) into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. After cotranslational cleavage of the signal peptide, the immature GP-C is posttranslationally proc...

    Authors: Robert Eichler, Oliver Lenz, Wolfgang Garten and Thomas Strecker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:41

    Content type: Research

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  11. To effectively analyze the requirements for protection to rotavirus infection, a reliable animal model that reasonably mimics infection and disease in humans is needed. A requirement for an effective animal mo...

    Authors: Larry E Westerman, Baoming Jiang, Harold M McClure, Lauren J Snipes-Magaldi, Dixie D Griffin, Gary Shin, Jon R Gentsch and Roger I Glass

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:40

    Content type: Research

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  12. Many model systems of human viral disease involve human-mouse chimeric tissue. One such system is the recently developed SCID-beige/Alb-uPA mouse model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which involves a hum...

    Authors: Kathie-Anne Walters, Michael A Joyce, Jill C Thompson, Sean Proll, James Wallace, Maria W Smith, Jeff Furlong, D Lorne Tyrrell and Michael G Katze

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:37

    Content type: Methodology

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  13. In recent years it was reported that the accumulation of point mutations in VP4 and VP7 genes of rotavirus strains was the main cause of the failure of the G or P-typing. Failures in the correct genotyping of G1,...

    Authors: Gabriel I Parra and Emilio E Espinola

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:35

    Content type: Short report

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  14. The mature F protein of all known isolates of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) contains fifteen absolutely conserved cysteine (C) residues that are highly conserved among the F proteins of other pneumo...

    Authors: Nicole D Day, Patrick J Branigan, Changbao Liu, Lester L Gutshall, Jianquan Luo, José A Melero, Robert T Sarisky and Alfred M Del Vecchio

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:34

    Content type: Research

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  15. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in infants and is a risk factor for the development of asthma. Allergic asthmatics are more susceptible to RSV infection and vira...

    Authors: Rajeswari Singam, Prasanna K Jena, Sumita Behera, Gary R Hellermann, Richard F Lockey, Dennis Ledford and Shyam S Mohapatra

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:32

    Content type: Research

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  16. Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating...

    Authors: James M Nolan, Vasiliy Petrov, Claire Bertrand, Henry M Krisch and Jim D Karam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:30

    Content type: Research

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  17. Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) attachment and internalization is thought to be mediated by host cell membrane-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG). Lack of HSPG on the apical membrane of resp...

    Authors: Michael P Boyle, Raymond A Enke, Jeffrey B Reynolds, Peter J Mogayzel Jr, William B Guggino and Pamela L Zeitlin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:29

    Content type: Research

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  18. Many viral pathogens are poorly characterized, are difficult to culture or reagents are lacking for confirmatory diagnoses. We have developed and tested a robust assay for detecting and characterizing large DN...

    Authors: Larry A Hanson, Mary R Rudis, Marcia Vasquez-Lee and Roy D Montgomery

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:28

    Content type: Methodology

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  19. Self-inactivating retroviral vectors (SIN) are often associated with very low titers. Promoter elements embedded within SIN designs may suppress transcription of packageable retroviral RNA which in turn result...

    Authors: Diana E Jaalouk, Milena Crosato, Pnina Brodt and Jacques Galipeau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:27

    Content type: Research

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  20. A model has been presented for retrograde transport of certain toxins and viruses from the cell surface to the ER that suggests an obligatory interaction with a glycolipid receptor at the cell surface. Here we...

    Authors: Robert A Spooner, Daniel C Smith, Andrew J Easton, Lynne M Roberts and Michael J Lord

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:26

    Content type: Review

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  21. Primary HIV infection can develop from exposure to HIV in the oral cavity. In previous studies, we have documented rapid and extensive binding of HIV virions in seminal plasma to intact mucosal surfaces of the...

    Authors: Renu B Kumar, Diane M Maher, Mark C Herzberg and Peter J Southern

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:25

    Content type: Research

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  22. The study aimed at developing a real-time quantitative PCR assay to monitor HBV serum virus load of chronic carriers enrolled in therapeutic trials.

    Authors: Maimuna E Mendy, Steve Kaye, Marianne van der Sande, Pura Rayco-Solon, Pauline A Waight, Deborah Shipton, Dorka Awi, Paul Snell, Hilton Whittle and Samuel J McConkey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:23

    Content type: Research

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  23. Infection of macaques with the avirulent molecular clone SIVmac1A11 results in transient low viremia and no disease. To investigate if this low viremia is solely due to intrinsic poor replication fitness or is...

    Authors: Koen KA Van Rompay, Emily J Blackwood, Gary Landucci, Don Forthal and Marta L Marthas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:22

    Content type: Short report

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  24. Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) continues to be an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in immunocompromised patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive and commonly used meth...

    Authors: P Sowmya, HN Madhavan and KL Therese

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:20

    Content type: Research

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  25. Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better ...

    Authors: Michael P Muehlenbein, Frank B Cogswell, Mark A James, James Koterski and George V Ludwig

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:19

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Inhibition of the human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase by maribavir is thought to be responsible for the antiviral activity of this compound. Some mutations that confer resistance to maribavir map to UL97, however a...

    Authors: Mark N Prichard, Debra C Quenelle, Deborah J Bidanset, Gloria Komazin, Sunwen Chou, John C Drach and Earl R Kern

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:18

    Content type: Short report

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  27. The distribution of deformed wing virus infection within the honey bee reproductive castes (queens, drones) was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistology from paraffin embedded sections. Digoxygen...

    Authors: Julie Fievet, Diana Tentcheva, Laurent Gauthier, Joachim de Miranda, François Cousserans, Marc Edouard Colin and Max Bergoin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:16

    Content type: Short report

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  28. The Coccolithoviridae is a recently discovered family of viruses that infect the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Following on from the sequencing of the type strain EhV-86, we have sequenced a second s...

    Authors: Michael J Allen, Declan C Schroeder, Andrew Donkin, Katharine J Crawfurd and William H Wilson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:15

    Content type: Research

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  29. A number of gene therapy applications would benefit from vectors capable of expressing multiple genes. In this study we explored the feasibility and efficiency of expressing two or three transgenes in HIV-1 ba...

    Authors: Dhanalakshmi Chinnasamy, Michael D Milsom, James Shaffer, James Neuenfeldt, Aimen F Shaaban, Geoffrey P Margison, Leslie J Fairbairn and Nachimuthu Chinnasamy

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:14

    Content type: Research

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  30. Papillomaviruses undergo a complex life cycle requiring regulated DNA replication. The papillomavirus E1 helicase is essential for viral DNA replication and plays a key role in controlling viral genome copy nu...

    Authors: Michael R Lentz, Stanley M Stevens Jr, Joshua Raynes and Nancy Elkhoury

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:13

    Content type: Research

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  31. Panicum mosaic virus (PMV) has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that serves as the mRNA for two 5'-proximal genes, p48 and p112. The p112 open reading frame (ORF) has a GDD-motif, a feature of virus R...

    Authors: Jeffrey S Batten, Massimo Turina and Karen-Beth G Scholthof

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:12

    Content type: Research

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  32. D-type simian retrovirus-2 (SRV-2) causes an AIDS-like immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) in various macaque species. SAIDS is often accompanied by retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF), an aggressive fibroprolife...

    Authors: Jeannette Philipp-Staheli, Taya Marquardt, Margaret E Thouless, A Gregory Bruce, Richard F Grant, Che-Chung Tsai and Timothy M Rose

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:11

    Content type: Research

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  33. Although many vaccinia virus proteins have been identified and studied in detail, only a few studies have attempted a comprehensive survey of the protein composition of the vaccinia virion. These projects have...

    Authors: Jennifer D Yoder, Tsefang S Chen, Cliff R Gagnier, Srilakshmi Vemulapalli, Claudia S Maier and Dennis E Hruby

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:10

    Content type: Research

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  34. Genetic redirection of lymphocytes that have been genetically engineered to recognize antigens other than those originally programmed in their germlines is a potentially powerful tool for immunotherapy of canc...

    Authors: Anthony Simmons, Robert P Whitehead, Andrey A Kolokoltsov and Robert A Davey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:8

    Content type: Research

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  35. A 21-year-old man presented with nasal obstruction of the right nasal fossa of 1 year duration. Nasal endoscopy revealed in the right inferior turbinate head a rounded neoplasm about 1 cm in diameter.

    Authors: Matteo Gelardi, Marilena Tomaiuolo, Michele Cassano, Gaspare Besozzi, Maria Luisa Fiorella, Agata Calvario, Maria Antonia Castellano and Pasquale Cassano

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:6

    Content type: Case Report

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  36. Nicotiana benthamiana plants were stably transformed with an intron-spliced dsRNA producing construct cognate to bidirectional promoter of African cassava mosaic geminivirus (ACMV) DNA A. Transgenic lines express...

    Authors: Afzal Muhammad Dogar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:5

    Content type: Short report

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  37. Although the sequence of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome is generally conserved among unrelated clinical strains, some open reading frames (ORFs) are highly variable. UL146 and UL147, which encode CXC ...

    Authors: Nell S Lurain, Andrea M Fox, Heather M Lichy, Sangeeta M Bhorade, Carl F Ware, Diana D Huang, Sau-Ping Kwan, Edward R Garrity and Sunwen Chou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:4

    Content type: Research

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  38. Human polyomavirus JC (JCV), the etiological agent of the disease progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) affects immunocompromised patients particularly patients with AIDS. In vitro studies of JCV infec...

    Authors: Moti L Chapagain, Taylor Nguyen, Thomas Bui, Saguna Verma and Vivek R Nerurkar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:3

    Content type: Short report

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  39. Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in many endemic countries. Dengue-2 (Den-2) virus is a re...

    Authors: Rangaiah S Jayakeerthi, Raghava V Potula, S Srinivasan and S Badrinath

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:2

    Content type: Research

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