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  1. Matrix protein 2 (M2) is an integral tetrameric membrane protein of influenza A virus (IAV). Its ectodomain (M2e) shows remarkably little diversity amongst human IAV strains. As M2e-specific antibodies (Abs) h...

    Authors: JingQi Feng, Manxin Zhang, Krystyna Mozdzanowska, Darya Zharikova, Henry Hoff, William Wunner, Robert B Couch and Walter Gerhard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:102

    Content type: Research

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  2. The amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLV-A's) are naturally occurring, exogenously acquired gammaretroviruses that are indigenous to the Southern California wild mice. These viruses replicate in a wide ra...

    Authors: Thomas M Howard, Zhijuan Sheng, Mingwu Wang, Yongchun Wu and Suraiya Rasheed

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:101

    Content type: Research

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  3. The antiviral action of interferon alpha targets the 5' untranslated region (UTR) used by hepatitis C virus (HCV) to translate protein by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism. Although this sequenc...

    Authors: Ramesh Prabhu, Robert F Garry and Srikanta Dash

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:100

    Content type: Research

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  4. Despite the continuous shedding of HIV infected blood into the oral cavity and the detectable presence of the AIDS virus at a high frequency, human saliva is reported to inhibit oral transmission of HIV throug...

    Authors: Habtom H Habte, Anwar S Mall, Corena de Beer, Zoë E Lotz and Delawir Kahn

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:99

    Content type: Research

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  5. Little is known at the molecular level concerning the differences and/or similarities between alcohol and hepatitis C virus induced liver disease. Global transcriptional profiling using oligonucleotide microar...

    Authors: Sharon L Lederer, Kathie-Anne Walters, Sean Proll, Bryan Paeper, Shahar Robinzon, Loreto Boix, Nelson Fausto, Jordi Bruix and Michael G Katze

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:98

    Content type: Research

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  6. T-cell activation leads to signaling pathways that ultimately result in induction of gene transcription from the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter. We hypothesized that the IL-2 promoter or its synthetic derivativ...

    Authors: Diana E Jaalouk, Laurence Lejeune, Clément Couture and Jacques Galipeau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:97

    Content type: Research

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  7. Recombination between hepatitis C single stranded RNA viruses is a rare event. Natural viable intragenotypic and intergenotypic recombinants between 1b-1a, 1a-1c and 2k-1b, 2i-6p, respectively, have been repor...

    Authors: Isabelle Moreau, Susan Hegarty, John Levis, Patrick Sheehy, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh and Liam J Fanning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:95

    Content type: Research

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  8. The Z protein is the matrix protein of arenaviruses and has been identified as the main driving force for budding. Both LCMV and Lassa virus Z proteins bud from cells in the absence of other viral proteins as ...

    Authors: Thomas Strecker, Anna Maisa, Stephane Daffis, Robert Eichler, Oliver Lenz and Wolfgang Garten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:93

    Content type: Research

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  9. A major DHF outbreak occurred in Delhi in 1996. Following this another outbreak was reported in the year 2003. In the years 2004 and 2005, though no outbreak was reported, a definitely higher number of samples...

    Authors: Ekta Gupta, Lalit Dar, Geetanjali Kapoor and Shobha Broor

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:92

    Content type: Research

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  10. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the etiologic agent of PRRS, causing widespread chronic infections which are largely uncontrolled by currently available vaccines or other antivir...

    Authors: William A Cafruny, Richard G Duman, Grace HW Wong, Suleman Said, Pam Ward-Demo, Raymond RR Rowland and Eric A Nelson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:90

    Content type: Research

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  11. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a significant public health burden and small animal models are needed to study the pathology and immunobiology of the virus. In effort to develop experimental HCV mouse models, we sc...

    Authors: Susan L Uprichard, Josan Chung, Francis V Chisari and Takaji Wakita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:89

    Content type: Research

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  12. Vaccinia virus (VACV)-DUKE was isolated from a lesion on a 54 year old female who presented to a doctor at the Duke University Medical Center. She was diagnosed with progressive vaccinia and treated with vacci...

    Authors: Guiyun Li, Nanhai Chen, Zehua Feng, R Mark L Buller, John Osborne, Tiara Harms, Inger Damon, Chris Upton and David J Esteban

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:88

    Content type: Research

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  13. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been the subject of intense research and clinical investigation as its major role in human disease has emerged. HCV circulates in vivo as a complex population of different but closely ...

    Authors: María P Moreno, Didier Casane, Lilia López and Juan Cristina

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:87

    Content type: Research

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  14. The APOBEC3G protein represents a novel innate defense mechanism against retroviral infection. It facilitates the deamination of the cytosine residues in the single stranded cDNA intermediate during early step...

    Authors: Melanie Kremer, Yasemin Suezer, Yolanda Martinez-Fernandez, Carsten Münk, Gerd Sutter and Barbara S Schnierle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:86

    Content type: Research

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  15. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in the oral cavity plays an important role in its horizontal transmission and in causing viral-associated oral diseases such as gingivitis. However, little is currently k...

    Authors: Rong Hai, Alice Chu, Hongjian Li, Sean Umamoto, Paul Rider and Fenyong Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:84

    Content type: Research

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  16. Infections with papillomaviruses induce type-specific immune responses, mainly directed against the major capsid protein, L1. Based on the propensity of the L1 protein to self-assemble into virus-like particle...

    Authors: Stefanie D Roth, Martin Sapp, Rolf E Streeck and Hans-Christoph Selinka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:83

    Content type: Research

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  17. We recently reported the isolation and in vitro replication of hepatitis C virus. These isolates were termed CIMM-HCV and analyzed to establish genotypes and subtypes, which are reported elsewhere. During this an...

    Authors: Dennis Revie, Michael O Alberti, Ravi S Braich, David Bayles, John G Prichard and S Zaki Salahuddin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:82

    Content type: Research

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  18. Isolation and self-replication of infectious HCV has been a difficult task. However, this is needed for the purposes of developing rational drugs and for the analysis of the natural virus. Our recent report of...

    Authors: Dennis Revie, Michael O Alberti, Ravi S Braich, Nickolas Chelyapov, David Bayles, John G Prichard and S Zaki Salahuddin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:81

    Content type: Research

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  19. Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostruc...

    Authors: KT Tsen, Eric C Dykeman, Otto F Sankey, Nien-Tsung Lin, Shaw-Wei D Tsen and Juliann G Kiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:79

    Content type: Research

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  20. Infectious bronchitis is highly contagious and constitutes one of the most common and difficult poultry diseases to control. IBV is endemic in probably all countries that raise chickens. It exists as dozens of...

    Authors: Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Magdy F El-Kady, Brian S Ladman and Jack Gelb Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:78

    Content type: Research

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  21. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) can infect blood cells and thereby may inhibit hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion and differentiation. In this context, it has been discussed if early progenitor cells...

    Authors: Stefanie Thulke, Aleksandar Radonić, Andreas Nitsche and Wolfgang Siegert

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:77

    Content type: Short report

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  22. Epithelial defensins including human β-defensins (hBDs) and α-defensins (HDs) are antimicrobial peptides that play important roles in the mucosal defense system. However, the role of defensins in papillomaviru...

    Authors: Kong T Chong, Liangbin Xiang, Xiaohong Wang, Eunjoo L Jun, Long-fu Xi and John M Schweinfurth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:75

    Content type: Research

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  23. Simian-Human immunodeficiency virus is a chimeric virus which, in rhesus macaques (Macacca mulatta) closely imitates immunodeficiency virus infection in human (HIV). A relatively new way to study pathogenesis of ...

    Authors: Erica E Carroll, Rasha Hammamieh, Nabarun Chakraborty, Aaron T Phillips, Stacy-Ann M Miller and Marti Jett

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:74

    Content type: Research

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  24. Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from ...

    Authors: Jean-Pierre Hugot, Angelina Plyusnina, Vincent Herbreteau, Kirill Nemirov, Juha Laakkonen, Åke Lundkvist, Yupin Supputamongkol, Heikki Henttonen and Alexander Plyusnin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:72

    Content type: Research

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  25. There is an urgent need to develop novel approaches to vaccination against the emerging, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Here, we engineered influenza viral-like particles (Flu-VLPs) derived from re...

    Authors: Judit Szécsi, Bertrand Boson, Per Johnsson, Pia Dupeyrot-Lacas, Mikhail Matrosovich, Hans-Dieter Klenk, David Klatzmann, Viktor Volchkov and François-Loïc Cosset

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:70

    Content type: Short report

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  26. There is widespread interest in the use of innate immune modulators as a defense strategy against infectious pathogens. Using rotavirus as a model system, we developed a cell-based, moderate-throughput screeni...

    Authors: Mark E Shaneyfelt, Anna D Burke, Joel W Graff, Mark A Jutila and Michele E Hardy

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:68

    Content type: Methodology

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  27. The performance of polyclonal monospecific rabbit anti-sera raised against synthetic peptides derived from conserved HCV sequences of genotype 4 was evaluated for efficient detection of viral core and E1 antig...

    Authors: Mostafa K El Awady, Yasmine S El Abd, Hussein A Shoeb, Ashraf A Tabll, AlaaElDin MS Hosny, Reem M El Shenawy, Khaled Atef, Noha G Bader El Din and Mahmoud M Bahgat

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:67

    Content type: Research

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  28. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes several proteins that interfere with the host cell antiviral response. Previously, the serine protease NS3/4A was shown to inhibit IFN-β gene expression by blocking dsRNA-activa...

    Authors: Pasi Kaukinen, Maarit Sillanpää, Sergei Kotenko, Rongtuan Lin, John Hiscott, Krister Melén and Ilkka Julkunen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:66

    Content type: Research

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  29. Emergence of viral variants that escape CTL control is a major hurdle in HIV vaccination unless such variants affect gene regions that are essential for virus replication. Vaccine-induced multispecific CTL cou...

    Authors: Pascale Villefroy, Franck Letourneur, Zoe Coutsinos, Lorenzo Mortara, Christian Beyer, Helene Gras-Masse, Jean-Gerard Guillet and Isabelle Bourgault-Villada

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:65

    Content type: Research

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  30. Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested s...

    Authors: Mikhail Matrosovich, Tatyana Matrosovich, Wolfgang Garten and Hans-Dieter Klenk

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:63

    Content type: Methodology

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  31. It was reported that elevation of the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) by a calcium ionophore increased the release of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Freely diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H

    Authors: Emiko Arimoto, Soichi Iwai, Tetsuro Sumi, Yuzo Ogawa and Yoshiaki Yura

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:62

    Content type: Research

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  32. Guards of Cyprian honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera cypria, display a great defensive behaviour against hornets' attacks. The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unl...

    Authors: Agnès Rortais, Diana Tentcheva, Alexandros Papachristoforou, Laurent Gauthier, Gérard Arnold, Marc Edouard Colin and Max Bergoin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:61

    Content type: Short report

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  33. The amino terminal half of the cellular prion protein PrPc is implicated in both the binding of copper ions and the conformational changes that lead to disease but has no defined structure. However, as some struc...

    Authors: Snezana Vasiljevic, Junyuan Ren, YongXiu Yao, Kevin Dalton, Catherine S Adamson and Ian M Jones

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:59

    Content type: Research

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  34. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Influenza A virus is a determinant of viral pathogenicity and host range that is responsible for transcribing and replicating the negative sense segmented viral genome (vRNA...

    Authors: Rosa M Dalton, Anne E Mullin, Maria Joao Amorim, Elizabeth Medcalf, Laurence S Tiley and Paul Digard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:58

    Content type: Research

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  35. Characterization of the structural morphology of virus particles in electron micrographs is a complex task, but desirable in connection with investigation of the maturation process and detection of changes in ...

    Authors: Martin Ryner, Jan-Olov Strömberg, Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér and Mohammed Homman-Loudiyi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:57

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. Dengue virus infection has recently taken endemic proportion in India implicating all the four known dengue serotypes. There was a major dengue outbreak in northern India including Delhi in October- December, ...

    Authors: Paban Kumar Dash, Man Mohan Parida, Parag Saxena, Ajay Abhyankar, CP Singh, KN Tewari, Asha Mukul Jana, K Sekhar and PV Lakshmana Rao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2006 3:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on: