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Section Editor: Li Wu, Ohio State University, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Ben Berkhout, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands ​​​​​​​

The Retroviruses section of Virology Journal aims to publish research articles and reviews covering all aspects of human and animal retroviruses. We welcome basic and translational studies on the mechanisms of retrovirus replication and pathogenesis, including reports on the development of antiretroviral drugs and vaccines. Interdisciplinary research on retroviruses using multiple approaches is particularly welcome.

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  1. Content type: Short Report

    SAMHD1 counteracts HIV-1 or HIV-2/SIVsmm that lacks Vpx by depleting the intracellular pool of nucleotides in myeloid cells and CD4+ quiescent T cells, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of retroviral DNA by rev...

    Authors: Loic Dragin, Soundasse Munir-Matloob, Jeanne Froehlich, Marina Morel, Adèle Sourisce, Hichem Lahouassa, Karine Bailly, Marianne Mangeney, Bertha Cecilia Ramirez and Florence Margottin-Goguet

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:201

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  2. Content type: Short report

    HIV-1 subtype C Nef sequences have a significantly lower ability overall to down-regulate CD4 and HLA-I than subtype B Nef sequences. Here we investigated whether Nef amino acids differing in frequency between...

    Authors: Jaclyn K. Mann, Saleha Omarjee, Phumzile Khumalo and Thumbi Ndung’u

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:200

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  3. Content type: Research

    Subgroups A, B, E and J are the major subgroups of avian leukosis virus (ALV) infecting chickens. ALV infection has become endemic in China and has a significant negative effect on the poultry industry. Conseq...

    Authors: Hao Peng, Lili Qin, Yuyu Bi, Peikun Wang, Guangzhen Zou, Jun Li, Yongli Yang, Xingfu Zhong and Ping Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:195

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  4. Content type: Research

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is recommended to control the infection of HIV-1. HIV-1 drug resistance becomes an obstacle to HAART due to the accumulation of specific mutations in the RT coding ...

    Authors: Wei Guo, Jingwan Han, Daomin Zhuang, Siyang Liu, Yongjian Liu, Lin Li, Hanping Li, Zuoyi Bao, Fujiang Wang and Jingyun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:187

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  5. Content type: Research

    Template switching between two distinct HIV-1 RNA genomes during reverse transcription gives rise to recombinant viruses that greatly expand the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and have adverse implications for dru...

    Authors: Aiman A. Haqqani, Samantha L. Marek, Jagadish Kumar, Miles Davenport, Heng Wang and John C. Tilton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:184

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  6. Content type: Research

    The mechanisms through which HTLV-1 leads to and maintains damage in the central nervous system of patients undergoing HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) are still poorly under...

    Authors: Eduardo Samo Gudo, Suse Dayse Silva-Barbosa, Leandra Linhares-Lacerda, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Suzana Corte Real, Dumith Chequer Bou-Habib and Wilson Savino

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:165

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  7. Content type: Short report

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein is necessary and sufficient to assemble non-infectious particles. Given that HIV-1 subverts many host proteins at all stages of its life cycle, i...

    Authors: Valerie Le Sage, Alessandro Cinti, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría and Andrew J. Mouland

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:138

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  8. Content type: Research

    Copper has antimicrobial properties and has been studied for its activity against viruses, including HIV. Copper complexed within a phthalocyanine ring, forming copper (II) phthalocyanine sulfate (CuPcS), may ...

    Authors: Ashley R. Styczynski, Khandaker N. Anwar, Habiba Sultana, Abdelhamid Ghanem, Nell Lurain, Aishi Chua, Mahmood Ghassemi and Richard M. Novak

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:132

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  9. Content type: research

    The cellular protein eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) binds to aminoacylated transfer RNAs and delivers them to the ribosome during translation. eEF1A also binds to RNA secondary structures ...

    Authors: Dongsheng Li, Ting Wei, Hongping Jin, Amanda Rose, Rui Wang, Min-Hsuan Lin, Kirsten Spann and David Harrich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:118

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  10. Content type: Research

    One of the major functions of Nef is in the enhancement of the infectivity of the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively). However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of vi...

    Authors: Keisuke Harada, Nobutoki Takamune, Shozo Shoji and Shogo Misumi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:222

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  11. Content type: Research

    Xenotransplantation has drawn increased attention in recent years as a potential solution to the scarcity of human source donor organs. Researchers have highlighted the need to characterize the influence of po...

    Authors: Fei Guo, Xiaowei Xing, Wayne J Hawthorne, Qiong Dong, Bin Ye, Juan Zhang, Qi Liang, Wei Nie and Wei Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:212

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  12. Content type: Research

    Attempts to eradicate HIV from cellular reservoirs are vital but depend on a clear understanding of how viral variants are transmitted and survive in the different cell types that constitute such reservoirs. M...

    Authors: Yudong Quan, Hongtao Xu, Victor G Kramer, Yingshan Han, Richard D Sloan and Mark A Wainberg

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:177

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  13. Content type: Research

    HTLV-1 causes proliferation of clonal populations of infected T cells in vivo, each clone defined by a unique proviral integration site in the host genome. The proviral load is strongly correlated with odds of...

    Authors: Heather A Niederer, Daniel J Laydon, Anat Melamed, Marjet Elemans, Becca Asquith, Masao Matsuoka and Charles RM Bangham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:172

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  14. Content type: Research

    The deciphering of cellular networks to determine susceptibility to infection by HIV or the related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a major challenge in infection biology.

    Authors: Feng Q He, Ulrike Sauermann, Christiane Beer, Silke Winkelmann, Zheng Yu, Sieghart Sopper, An-Ping Zeng and Manfred Wirth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:152

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  15. Content type: Research

    Tetherin is an interferon-inducible host cell factor that blocks the viral particle release of the enveloped viruses. Most knowledge regarding the interaction between tetherin and viruses has been obtained usi...

    Authors: Xin Yin, Miaomiao Guo, Qinyong Gu, Xingliang Wu, Ping Wei and Xiaojun Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:151

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  16. Content type: Research

    The CD8 Antiviral Factor (CAF) suppresses viral transcription from the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter in a non-cytolytic manner. However, the region on the LTR upon which CAF acts is unknown. Our ob...

    Authors: Varsha Shridhar, Yue Chen and Phalguni Gupta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:130

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  17. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Vif is essential for virus replication in natural target cells such as T cells and macrophages. Vif recruits a ubiquitin ligase to degrade restrictive APOBEC3 proteins. APOBEC3G is one of the most potent...

    Authors: Masashi Matsui, Keisuke Shindo, Taisuke Izumi, Katsuhiro Io, Masanobu Shinohara, Jun Komano, Masayuki Kobayashi, Norimitsu Kadowaki, Reuben S Harris and Akifumi Takaori-Kondo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:122

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  18. Content type: Research

    Due to potential advantages, human adenoviral vectors have been evaluated pre-clinically as recombinant vaccine vectors against several cancers and infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (...

    Authors: Linlin Gu, Valentina Krendelchtchikova, Alexandre Krendelchtchikov, Robert A Oster, Kohtaro Fujihashi and Qiana L Matthews

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:112

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  19. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 Vpr-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest is dependent on the interaction of Vpr with an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1), Cullin 4A (Cul4A), DDB1 and Cul4-associated f...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Hakata, Masaaki Miyazawa and Nathaniel R Landau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:108

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  20. Content type: Short report

    The antiviral protein Daxx acts as a restriction factor of avian sarcoma virus (ASV; Retroviridae) in mammalian cells by promoting epigenetic silencing of integrated proviral DNA. Although Daxx is encoded by a ty...

    Authors: Kelsey A Haugh, Natalia Shalginskikh, Shoko Nogusa, Anna Marie Skalka, Richard A Katz and Siddharth Balachandran

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:100

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  21. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 gene expression is driven by the long terminal repeat (LTR), which contains many binding sites shown to interact with an array of host and viral factors. Selective pressures within the host as well as th...

    Authors: Sonia Shah, Aikaterini Alexaki, Vanessa Pirrone, Satinder Dahiya, Michael R Nonnemacher and Brian Wigdahl

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:92

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  22. Content type: Research

    Small ruminant lentiviruses escaping efficient serological detection are still circulating in Swiss goats in spite of a long eradication campaign that essentially eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis...

    Authors: Martina Deubelbeiss, Laure Blatti-Cardinaux, Marie-Luise Zahno, Reto Zanoni, Hans-Rudolf Vogt, Horst Posthaus and Giuseppe Bertoni

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:65

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  23. Content type: Research

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of ancestral infections and chromosomally integrated in all cells of an individual, are transmitted only vertically and are defective in viral replication. Ho...

    Authors: Benjamin Kraus, Katrin Fischer, Katja Sliva and Barbara S Schnierle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:58

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  24. Content type: Research

    As the most frequent pathway of vertical transmission of HTLV-1 is breast-feeding, and considering the higher prevalence in women, it is very important to perform screening examinations for anti-HTLV-1 antibod...

    Authors: Marco Antônio Gomes Mello, Aline Ferreira da Conceição, Sandra Mara Bispo Sousa, Luiz Carlos Alcântara, Lauro Juliano Marin, Mônica Regina da Silva Raiol, Ney Boa-Sorte, Lucas Pereira Souza Santos, Maria da Conceição Chagas de Almeida, Tâmara Coutinho Galvão, Raquel Gois Bastos, Noilson Lázaro, Bernardo Galvão-Castro and Sandra Rocha Gadelha

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:28

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  25. Content type: Research

    Because of the shared transmission routes, co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HIV) is very common. Accumulated clinical evidence showed that one could alter the infecti...

    Authors: Lina Yi, Jin Zhao, Jing Lu, Ying Chen, Lin Chen, Jinquan Cheng, Yan Sun, Zhi Li, Ruotin Men, Li Yang, Hsiangfu Kung, Zhengrong Yang and Ming-liang He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:27

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  26. Content type: Research

    Previously, we showed that the tetraspanin membrane protein CD63 mediates both early and post-integration stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle. The temporal roles of CD63 were discerned using monoclonal antib...

    Authors: Guangyu Li, Mark A Endsley, Anoma Somasunderam, Sonia L Gbota, Maryann I Mbaka, James L Murray and Monique R Ferguson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:23

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  27. Content type: Research

    We and others have previously reported that cell membrane-bound TGFβ (mTGFβ) on activated T regulatory (Treg) cells mediates suppressor function. Current findings suggest that a novel protein known as Glycopro...

    Authors: Michelle M Miller, Christopher S Petty, Mary B Tompkins and Jonathan E Fogle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:7

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  28. Content type: Research

    Despite the significant contributions of monocytes to HIV persistence, the HIV-monocyte interaction remains elusive. For patients on antiretroviral therapy, previous studies observed a virological suppression ...

    Authors: Jing Qin Wu, Tara Ruth Sassé, Monica Miranda Saksena and Nitin K Saksena

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:361

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  29. Content type: Research

    Previously, we had shown that persons infected with human T-cell lymphoma leukemia virus 1 or 2 (HTLV-1 or 2) had an increased prevalence of antibodies to a peptide in the Pol protein of the retrovirus HERV-K1...

    Authors: Raisa Perzova, Elliot Graziano, Swathi Sanghi, Caitlin Welch, Patricia Benz, Lynn Abbott, Danielle Lalone, Jordan Glaser, Thomas Loughran, William Sheremata and Bernard J Poiesz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:360

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  30. Content type: Short report

    There is legitimate concern that minority drug-resistant mutants may be selected during the initial HIV-1 RNA decay phase following antiretroviral therapy initiation, thus undermining efficacy of treatment. Th...

    Authors: Marc Noguera-Julian, Maria Casadellà, Christian Pou, Cristina Rodríguez, Susana Pérez-Álvarez, Jordi Puig, Bonaventura Clotet and Roger Paredes

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:350

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  31. Content type: Research

    Identification of the epitopes targeted by antibodies that can neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains can provide important clues for the design of a preventative vaccine.

    Authors: Miguel Lacerda, Penny L Moore, Nobubelo K Ngandu, Michael Seaman, Elin S Gray, Ben Murrell, Mohan Krishnamoorthy, Molati Nonyane, Maphuti Madiga, Constantinos Kurt Wibmer, Daniel Sheward, Robert T Bailer, Hongmei Gao, Kelli M Greene, Salim S Abdool Karim, John R Mascola…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:347

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  32. Content type: Research

    OX40 ligand (OX40L) co-stimulates and differentiates T cells via ligation of OX40 that is transiently induced on T cells upon activation, resulting in prolonged T cell survival and enhanced cytokine production...

    Authors: Daigo Kasahara, Azusa Takara, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Akira Kodama, Reiko Tanaka, Aftab A Ansari and Yuetsu Tanaka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:338

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  33. Content type: Research

    The etiology of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (FM/CFS) is currently unknown. A recurrent viral infection is an attractive hypothesis repeatedly found in the literature since it would explain the pe...

    Authors: Elisa Oltra, María García-Escudero, Armando Vicente Mena-Durán, Vicente Monsalve and Germán Cerdá-Olmedo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:332

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  34. Content type: Research

    Foamy viruses are non-pathogenic in vivo and naturally infect all species of non-human primates (NHP). Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are highly prevalent in both free ranging and captive NHP but few longitudinal stu...

    Authors: Simon Hood, Jane L Mitchell, Meera Sethi, Neil M Almond, Keith L Cutler and Nicola J Rose

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:326

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  35. Content type: Short report

    HIV in Chile has a notification rate of 0.01%. Coreceptor antagonists are a family of antiretroviral drugs that are used with the prior knowledge of patients HIV-1 tropism. Viral RNA-based tropism detection re...

    Authors: Pablo Ferrer, Luisa Montecinos, Mario Tello, Rocio Tordecilla, Consuelo Rodríguez, Marcela Ferrés, Carlos M Pérez, Carlos Beltrán, Maria A Guzmán and Alejandro Afani

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:318

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  36. Content type: Research

    Acacia catechu (Mimosa family) stem bark extracts have been used traditionally as a dietary supplement as well as a folk medicine given its reported anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxid...

    Authors: Nutan, Manoj Modi, Charlene S Dezzutti, Shweta Kulshreshtha, Ajay Kumar Singh Rawat, Sharad Kumar Srivastava, Swadesh Malhotra, Anjali Verma, Udaykumar Ranga and Satish Kumar Gupta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:309

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  37. Content type: Research

    HIV trans-activator protein (Tat) is the crucial factor to control HIV transcription, and is usually considered as an important immunogen for the design of HIV vaccine. Recent studies reported some special bio...

    Authors: Ye Liu, Fusheng Li, Zhi Qi, Yanling Hao, Kunxue Hong, Yong Liu, Yulong Cong and Yiming Shao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:297

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  38. Content type: Research

    Since Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) medications were made available in 2002, multiple serious side effects have been observed. However, no study has yet systematically evaluated the prevalence o...

    Authors: Jiang Xiao, Ning Han, Di Yang and Hongxin Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:261

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  39. Content type: Methodology

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are promising mediators of anti-tumor immune responses due to their potent antigen-presentation capacity. Unfortunately, cancer cells can often disarm differentiated DCs by rendering them...

    Authors: James CM Wang, Tânia C Felizardo, Bryan CY Au, Daniel H Fowler, Gregory A Dekaban and Jeffrey A Medin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:240

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  40. Content type: Research

    Integration of double stranded viral DNA is a key step in the retroviral life cycle. Virally encoded enzyme, integrase, plays a central role in this reaction. Mature forms of integrase of several retroviruses ...

    Authors: Guney Boso, Takafumi Tasaki, Yong Tae Kwon and Nikunj V Somia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:233

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  41. Content type: Research

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) can methylate the HIV-1 Tat, Rev and nucleocapsid proteins in a manner that diminishes each of their functions in in vitro assays, and increases the stability of Tat i...

    Authors: Haran Sivakumaran, Min-Hsuan Lin, Ann Apolloni, Vincent Cutillas, Hongping Jin, Dongsheng Li, Ting Wei and David Harrich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:207

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  42. Content type: Short report

    Osteosarcomas are the most common primary bone malignancies found in children and adolescents. An optimized system was developed for efficient retroviral gene delivery into solid 143B osteosarcoma tumors in mi...

    Authors: Xia Zhang, Anindita Sarangi, Dai-Tze Wu, Jaya Kanduri and Monica J Roth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:194

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  43. Content type: Research

    A neuropathogenic variant of Friend murine leukemia virus (Fr-MLV) clone A8 induces spongiform neurodegeneration when infected into neonatal rats. Studies with chimeras constructed from the A8 virus and the no...

    Authors: Yeng Cheng Choo, Yohei Seki, Akihito Machinaga, Nobuo Ogita and Sayaka Takase-Yoden

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:124

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