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Emerging viruses

Section Editor: Tom Geisbert, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Chad Mire, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA 

The Emerging viruses section of Virology Journal includes studies covering all aspects of new and reemerging viruses that cause severe and/or lethal diseases in humans and animals. Examples of these viruses include filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), henipaviruses (Nipah, Hendra), Lassa virus, Lujo virus, South American hemorrhagic fever viruses (Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Chapare, Sabia), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, hantaviruses, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis viruses, and Zika virus. Topics of interest include but are not limited to virus discovery, mechanisms of virus entry, assembly, protein translation, transcription and replication, pathogenesis, immunology, ecology, and epidemiology. Basic and translational research on the development of preventive vaccines and antiviral drugs and therapeutic interventions is particularly welcome.

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  1. In recent years, novel hepadnaviruses, hepeviruses, hepatoviruses, and hepaciviruses have been discovered in various species of bat around the world, indicating that bats may act as natural reservoirs for thes...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Xing-Lou Yang, Wen Li, Yan Zhu, Xing-Yi Ge, Li-Biao Zhang, Yun-Zhi Zhang, Claus-Thomas Bock and Zheng-Li Shi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:40
  2. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system a...

    Authors: Nils Lannes, Viviane Neuhaus, Brigitte Scolari, Solange Kharoubi-Hess, Michael Walch, Artur Summerfield and Luis Filgueira
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:8
  3. Reporting new cases of enterovirus (EV)-D68-associated acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is essential to understand how the virus causes neurological damage and to characterize EV-D68 strains associated with AFM.

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Giovanna Chidini, Claudia Cinnante, Luisa Napolitano, Alberto Giannini, Leonardo Terranova, Hubert Niesters, Nicola Principi and Edoardo Calderini
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:4
  4. Anelloviruses (TTV, TTMV, and TTMDV) have been associated with non A-G hepatitis. The goal of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of these anelloviruses in Qatar.

    Authors: Ahmed A. Al-Qahtani, Enas S. Alabsi, Raed AbuOdeh, Lukman Thalib, Mohamed E El Zowalaty and Gheyath K. Nasrallah
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:208

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2017 14:143

  5. Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne disease, is associated with illness of varying severity in countries in the tropics and sub tropics. Dengue cases continue to be detected more frequently and its geographic range...

    Authors: Limbaso Konongoi, Victor Ofula, Albert Nyunja, Samuel Owaka, Hellen Koka, Albina Makio, Edith Koskei, Fredrick Eyase, Daniel Langat, Randal J. Schoepp, Cynthia Ann Rossi, Ian Njeru, Rodney Coldren and Rosemary Sang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:182
  6. Sub-Saharan Africa is home to a variety of pathogens, but disease surveillance and the healthcare infrastructure necessary for proper management and control are severely limited. Lassa virus, the cause of Lass...

    Authors: Aileen E. O’Hearn, Matthew A. Voorhees, David P. Fetterer, Nadia Wauquier, Moinya R. Coomber, James Bangura, Joseph N. Fair, Jean-Paul Gonzalez and Randal J. Schoepp
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:163
  7. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes high fever, rash, and recurrent arthritis in humans. It has efficiently adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate region...

    Authors: Lisa Henß, Simon Beck, Tatjana Weidner, Nadine Biedenkopf, Katja Sliva, Christopher Weber, Stephan Becker and Barbara S. Schnierle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:149
  8. Mammalian Orthoreoviruses 3 (MRV3) have been described in diarrheic pigs from USA and Asia. We firstly detected MRV3 in Europe (Italy) in piglets showing severe diarrhea associated with Porcine Epidemic Diarrh...

    Authors: Davide Lelli, Maria Serena Beato, Lara Cavicchio, Antonio Lavazza, Chiara Chiapponi, Stefania Leopardi, Laura Baioni, Paola De Benedictis and Ana Moreno
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:139
  9. Bats have been implicated as the main reservoir of coronavirus (CoV). Thus the role of these hosts on the evolution and spread of CoVs currently deserve the attention of emerging diseases surveillance programs...

    Authors: Karen Miyuki Asano, Aline Santana Hora, Karin Côrrea Scheffer, Willian Oliveira Fahl, Keila Iamamoto, Enio Mori and Paulo Eduardo Brandão
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:110

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2016 13:124

  10. West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging zoonotic pathogen which is harmful to human and animal health. Effective vaccination in susceptible hosts should protect against WNV infection and significantly reduce vira...

    Authors: Jinliang Wang, Jie Yang, Jinying Ge, Ronghong Hua, Renqiang Liu, Xiaofeng Li, Xijun Wang, Yu Shao, Encheng Sun, Donglai Wu, Chengfeng Qin, Zhiyuan Wen and Zhigao Bu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:109
  11. Saliva and urine have been used for arthropod-borne viruses molecular detection but not yet for chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We investigated the use of saliva and urine for molecular detection of CHIKV during th...

    Authors: Didier Musso, Anita Teissier, Eline Rouault, Sylviane Teururai, Jean-Jacques de Pina and Tu-Xuan Nhan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:102

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2016 13:120

  12. The novel Malawi polyomavirus (MWPyV) was initially detected in stool specimens from healthy children and children with gastrointestinal symptoms, mostly diarrhea, indicating that MWPyV might play a role in hu...

    Authors: N. Papa, N. Zanotta, A. Knowles, E. Orzan and M. Comar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:97
  13. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) remains heavily neglected in humans in Mozambique, even though recent outbreaks were reported in neighboring countries in humans and several cases of RVFV in cattle were reported...

    Authors: Eduardo Samo Gudo, Gabriela Pinto, Jacqueline Weyer, Chantel le Roux, Arcildo Mandlaze, Américo Feriano José, Argentina Muianga and Janusz Tadeusz Paweska
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:96
  14. Small mammals such as bats and rodents have been increasingly recognized as reservoirs of novel potentially zoonotic pathogens. However, few in vitro model systems to date allow assessment of zoonotic viruses ...

    Authors: Lukas Ehlen, Jan Tödtmann, Sabine Specht, René Kallies, Jan Papies, Marcel A. Müller, Sandra Junglen, Christian Drosten and Isabella Eckerle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:74
  15. Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in Malaysia in 1998, with two bat species (Pteropus hypomelanus and P. vampyrus) as the putative natural reservoirs. In 2002, NiV IgG antibodies were detected in these species from...

    Authors: Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Panumas Samseeneam, Mana Phermpool, Thongchai Kaewpom, Apaporn Rodpan, Pattarapol Maneeorn, Phimchanok Srongmongkol, Budsabong Kanchanasaka and Thiravat Hemachudha
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:53
  16. One of the main phenomena occurring in cellular membranes during virus infection is a change in membrane permeability. It has been observed that numerous viral proteins can oligomerize and form structures know...

    Authors: Moisés León-Juárez, Macario Martínez-Castillo, Gaurav Shrivastava, Julio García-Cordero, Nicolás Villegas-Sepulveda, Mónica Mondragón-Castelán, Ricardo Mondragón-Flores and Leticia Cedillo-Barrón
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:1
  17. Genome-wide RNAi screening has been widely used to identify host proteins involved in replication and infection of different viruses, and numerous host factors are implicated in the replication cycles of these...

    Authors: Han Cheng, Katie Koning, Aileen O’Hearn, Minxiu Wang, Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Elizabeth Varhegyi and Lijun Rong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:194
  18. Rhabdoviridae infect a wide range of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Their transmission can occur via various arthropod vectors. In recent years, a number of novel rhabdoviruses...

    Authors: Meik Dilcher, Oumar Faye, Ousmane Faye, Franziska Weber, Andrea Koch, Chinikar Sadegh, Manfred Weidmann and Amadou Alpha Sall
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:183
  19. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an acute infectious disease caused by SFTS virus and characterized by a high case fatality rate. Currently, there is no effective therapy for the disease. ...

    Authors: Masayuki Shimojima, Shuetsu Fukushi, Hideki Tani, Satoshi Taniguchi, Aiko Fukuma and Masayuki Saijo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:181
  20. In Portugal, entomological surveys to detect phleboviruses in their natural vectors have not been performed so far. Thus, the aims of the present study were to detect, isolate and characterize phleboviruses in...

    Authors: Fátima Amaro, Líbia Zé-Zé, Maria J. Alves, Jessica Börstler, Joachim Clos, Stephan Lorenzen, Stefanie Christine Becker, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit and Daniel Cadar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:174
  21. Many attempts have been made to define nature of viruses and to uncover their origin. Our aim within this work was to show that there are different perceptions of viruses and many concepts to explain their eme...

    Authors: Julia Durzyńska and Anna Goździcka-Józefiak
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:169
  22. Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis affecting domestic and wild ruminants, camels and humans. Outbreaks of RVF are characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high mortality amongst...

    Authors: Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Sharon Shalekoff, Antoinette A. Grobbelaar, Brett N. Archer, Juno Thomas, Caroline T. Tiemessen and Janusz T. Paweska
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:159
  23. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of circoviruses in wild bird populations, in Poland. Circoviruses possess immuno-suppressive properties and might interfere with the health of wild birds.

    Authors: Anna Karolina Matczuk, Marta Krawiec and Alina Wieliczko
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:121
  24. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease that was first reported in China in 2011. It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) which is a member of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyavirida...

    Authors: Fuxun Yu, Yanhua Du, Xueyong Huang, Hong Ma, Bianli Xu, Ferdinard Adungo, Daisuke Hayasaka, Corazon C. Buerano and Kouichi Morita
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:117
  25. In 2008–09, evidence of Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection was found in domestic pigs and pig workers in the Philippines. With species of bats having been shown to be the cryptic reservoir of filoviruses else...

    Authors: Sarah I. Jayme, Hume E. Field, Carol de Jong, Kevin J. Olival, Glenn Marsh, Anson M. Tagtag, Tom Hughes, Anthony C. Bucad, Jennifer Barr, Rachel R. Azul, Lilia M. Retes, Adam Foord, Meng Yu, Magdalena S. Cruz, Imelda J. Santos, Theresa Mundita S. Lim…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:107
  26. Fevers of unknown origin constitute a substantial disease burden in Southeast Asia. In majority of the cases, the cause of acute febrile illness is not identified.

    Authors: Nary Ly, Rafal Tokarz, Nischay Mishra, Stephen Sameroff, Komal Jain, Agus Rachmat, Ung Sam An, Steven Newell, Dustin J Harrison and W Ian Lipkin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:224
  27. Parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the Densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. In recent years, a n...

    Authors: Jianqiang Ni, Caixia Qiao, Xue Han, Tao Han, Wenhua Kang, Zhanchao Zi, Zhen Cao, Xinyan Zhai and Xuepeng Cai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:203
  28. Hendra virus (HeV) is a pleomorphic virus belonging to the Paramyxovirus family. Our long-term aim is to understand the process of assembly of HeV virions. As a first step, we sought to determine the most appropr...

    Authors: Paul Monaghan, Diane Green, Jackie Pallister, Reuben Klein, John White, Catherine Williams, Paul McMillan, Leann Tilley, Marko Lampe, Pippa Hawes and Lin-Fa Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:200
  29. Due to difficulties of culturing Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) much of the current understanding of HMPV replication can be inferred from other closely related viruses. The slow rates of virus replication preve...

    Authors: Muhammad Raihan Jumat, Tra Nguyen Huong, Puisan Wong, Liat Hui Loo, Boon Huan Tan, Fiona Fenwick, Geoffrey L Toms and Richard J Sugrue
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:198
  30. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) in three high risk groups. The groups were divided into those exposed through infected individuals, those exposed ...

    Authors: Jie Wu, Lirong Zou, Hanzhong Ni, Lei Pei, Xianqiao Zeng, Lijun Liang, Haojie Zhong, Jianfeng He, Yingchao Song, Min Kang, Xin Zhang, Jinyan Lin and Changwen Ke
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:184
  31. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak recurrences in Thailand are unpredictable and separated by unexplained and often long silent epidemiological periods that can last for several years. These silent periods cou...

    Authors: Narong Nitatpattana, Kobkan Kanjanopas, Sutee Yoksan, Wichai Satimai, Narong Vongba, Sasiporn Langdatsuwan, Khajornpong Nakgoi, Supot Ratchakum, Nadia Wauquier, Marc Souris, Prasert Auewarakul and Jean-Paul Gonzalez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:183
  32. Noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Recombination frequently occurs within and between NoV genotypes and recombinants have been implicated in sporadic cases, outbreaks a...

    Authors: Janet Mans, Tanya Y Murray and Maureen B Taylor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:168
  33. Emerging antiviral resistant strains of influenza A virus are greatly limiting the therapies available to stop aggressive infections. Genome changes that confer resistance to the two classes of approved antivi...

    Authors: Alicia M Davis, Bryan J Chabolla and Laura L Newcomb
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:167
  34. Dengue is the most frequent arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Because dengue manifestations are similar to those of many other febrile syndromes, the availability of dengue-specific laboratory tests is ...

    Authors: Fatiha Najioullah, Florent Viron and Raymond Césaire
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:164
  35. Borna disease virus (BDV) is an evolutionary old RNA virus, which infects brain and blood cells of humans, their primate ancestors, and other mammals. Human infection has been correlated to mood disorders and ...

    Authors: Elham Mazaheri-Tehrani, Nader Maghsoudi, Jamal Shams, Hamid Soori, Hasti Atashi, Fereshteh Motamedi, Liv Bode and Hanns Ludwig
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:161
  36. Respiratory infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in reptiles; however, the causative agents are only infrequently identified.

    Authors: Lorenzo Uccellini, Robert J Ossiboff, Ricardo EC de Matos, James K Morrisey, Alexandra Petrosov, Isamara Navarrete-Macias, Komal Jain, Allison L Hicks, Elizabeth L Buckles, Rafal Tokarz, Denise McAloose and Walter Ian Lipkin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:144
  37. Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), a single positive-stranded RNA Flavivirus. There is no published evidence of dengue in Zambia. The objective of the study was to det...

    Authors: Mazyanga Lucy Mazaba-Liwewe, Seter Siziya, Mwaka Monze, Idah Mweene-Ndumba, Freddie Masaninga, Peter Songolo, Costantine Malama, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba and Olusegun A Babaniyi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:135
  38. Virus taxonomy at present is best characterized as a categorization of convenience, without a firm basis in the principles of evolutionary biology. Specifically, virus species definitions appear to depend more...

    Authors: A Townsend Peterson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:131
  39. Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related and following natural or experimental exposure induce similar clinical disease. In humans, encephalitis is the most serious outcome of infection and, hitherto, ...

    Authors: Johanna Dups, Deborah Middleton, Fenella Long, Rachel Arkinstall, Glenn A Marsh and Lin-Fa Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:102
  40. The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes.

    Authors: Nikos Vasilakis, Hilda Guzman, Cadhla Firth, Naomi L Forrester, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Shannan L Rossi, Elodie Ghedin, Vsevolov Popov, Kim R Blasdell, Peter J Walker and Robert B Tesh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:97
  41. Public health risks associated to infection by human coronaviruses remain considerable and vaccination is a key option for preventing the resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)....

    Authors: Ming Shum Yip, Nancy Hiu Lan Leung, Chung Yan Cheung, Ping Hung Li, Horace Hok Yeung Lee, Marc Daëron, Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris, Roberto Bruzzone and Martial Jaume
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:82
  42. The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3a protein functions as an ion channel, induces apoptosis and is important for viral pathogenesis. It is expressed on the cell surface and contains a tyrosine-based sorting moti...

    Authors: Rinki Minakshi and Kartika Padhan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:75