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Emerging viruses

Section Editor: Tom Geisbert, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Chad Mire, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA 

The Emerging viruses section of Virology Journal includes studies covering all aspects of new and reemerging viruses that cause severe and/or lethal diseases in humans and animals. Examples of these viruses include filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), henipaviruses (Nipah, Hendra), Lassa virus, Lujo virus, South American hemorrhagic fever viruses (Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Chapare, Sabia), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, hantaviruses, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis viruses, and Zika virus. Topics of interest include but are not limited to virus discovery, mechanisms of virus entry, assembly, protein translation, transcription and replication, pathogenesis, immunology, ecology, and epidemiology. Basic and translational research on the development of preventive vaccines and antiviral drugs and therapeutic interventions is particularly welcome.

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  1. Content type: Research

    Small mammals such as bats and rodents have been increasingly recognized as reservoirs of novel potentially zoonotic pathogens. However, few in vitro model systems to date allow assessment of zoonotic viruses ...

    Authors: Lukas Ehlen, Jan Tödtmann, Sabine Specht, René Kallies, Jan Papies, Marcel A. Müller, Sandra Junglen, Christian Drosten and Isabella Eckerle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:74

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  2. Content type: Short report

    Nipah virus (NiV) first emerged in Malaysia in 1998, with two bat species (Pteropus hypomelanus and P. vampyrus) as the putative natural reservoirs. In 2002, NiV IgG antibodies were detected in these species from...

    Authors: Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Panumas Samseeneam, Mana Phermpool, Thongchai Kaewpom, Apaporn Rodpan, Pattarapol Maneeorn, Phimchanok Srongmongkol, Budsabong Kanchanasaka and Thiravat Hemachudha

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:53

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  3. Content type: Research

    One of the main phenomena occurring in cellular membranes during virus infection is a change in membrane permeability. It has been observed that numerous viral proteins can oligomerize and form structures know...

    Authors: Moisés León-Juárez, Macario Martínez-Castillo, Gaurav Shrivastava, Julio García-Cordero, Nicolás Villegas-Sepulveda, Mónica Mondragón-Castelán, Ricardo Mondragón-Flores and Leticia Cedillo-Barrón

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:1

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  4. Content type: Research

    Genome-wide RNAi screening has been widely used to identify host proteins involved in replication and infection of different viruses, and numerous host factors are implicated in the replication cycles of these...

    Authors: Han Cheng, Katie Koning, Aileen O’Hearn, Minxiu Wang, Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Elizabeth Varhegyi and Lijun Rong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:194

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  5. Content type: Research

    Rhabdoviridae infect a wide range of vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Their transmission can occur via various arthropod vectors. In recent years, a number of novel rhabdoviruses...

    Authors: Meik Dilcher, Oumar Faye, Ousmane Faye, Franziska Weber, Andrea Koch, Chinikar Sadegh, Manfred Weidmann and Amadou Alpha Sall

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:183

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  6. Content type: Research

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an acute infectious disease caused by SFTS virus and characterized by a high case fatality rate. Currently, there is no effective therapy for the disease. ...

    Authors: Masayuki Shimojima, Shuetsu Fukushi, Hideki Tani, Satoshi Taniguchi, Aiko Fukuma and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:181

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  7. Content type: Short report

    In Portugal, entomological surveys to detect phleboviruses in their natural vectors have not been performed so far. Thus, the aims of the present study were to detect, isolate and characterize phleboviruses in...

    Authors: Fátima Amaro, Líbia Zé-Zé, Maria J. Alves, Jessica Börstler, Joachim Clos, Stephan Lorenzen, Stefanie Christine Becker, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit and Daniel Cadar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:174

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  8. Content type: Review

    Many attempts have been made to define nature of viruses and to uncover their origin. Our aim within this work was to show that there are different perceptions of viruses and many concepts to explain their eme...

    Authors: Julia Durzyńska and Anna Goździcka-Józefiak

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:169

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  9. Content type: Research

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis affecting domestic and wild ruminants, camels and humans. Outbreaks of RVF are characterized by a sudden onset of abortions and high mortality amongst...

    Authors: Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Sharon Shalekoff, Antoinette A. Grobbelaar, Brett N. Archer, Juno Thomas, Caroline T. Tiemessen and Janusz T. Paweska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:159

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  10. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of circoviruses in wild bird populations, in Poland. Circoviruses possess immuno-suppressive properties and might interfere with the health of wild birds.

    Authors: Anna Karolina Matczuk, Marta Krawiec and Alina Wieliczko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:121

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  11. Content type: Methodology

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging disease that was first reported in China in 2011. It is caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV) which is a member of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyavirida...

    Authors: Fuxun Yu, Yanhua Du, Xueyong Huang, Hong Ma, Bianli Xu, Ferdinard Adungo, Daisuke Hayasaka, Corazon C. Buerano and Kouichi Morita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:117

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  12. Content type: Research

    In 2008–09, evidence of Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) infection was found in domestic pigs and pig workers in the Philippines. With species of bats having been shown to be the cryptic reservoir of filoviruses else...

    Authors: Sarah I. Jayme, Hume E. Field, Carol de Jong, Kevin J. Olival, Glenn Marsh, Anson M. Tagtag, Tom Hughes, Anthony C. Bucad, Jennifer Barr, Rachel R. Azul, Lilia M. Retes, Adam Foord, Meng Yu, Magdalena S. Cruz, Imelda J. Santos, Theresa Mundita S. Lim…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:107

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  13. Content type: Research

    Fevers of unknown origin constitute a substantial disease burden in Southeast Asia. In majority of the cases, the cause of acute febrile illness is not identified.

    Authors: Nary Ly, Rafal Tokarz, Nischay Mishra, Stephen Sameroff, Komal Jain, Agus Rachmat, Ung Sam An, Steven Newell, Dustin J Harrison and W Ian Lipkin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:224

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  14. Content type: Research

    Parvoviruses are classified into two subfamilies based on their host range: the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrates, and the Densovirinae, which mainly infect insects and other arthropods. In recent years, a n...

    Authors: Jianqiang Ni, Caixia Qiao, Xue Han, Tao Han, Wenhua Kang, Zhanchao Zi, Zhen Cao, Xinyan Zhai and Xuepeng Cai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:203

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  15. Content type: Research

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a pleomorphic virus belonging to the Paramyxovirus family. Our long-term aim is to understand the process of assembly of HeV virions. As a first step, we sought to determine the most appropr...

    Authors: Paul Monaghan, Diane Green, Jackie Pallister, Reuben Klein, John White, Catherine Williams, Paul McMillan, Leann Tilley, Marko Lampe, Pippa Hawes and Lin-Fa Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:200

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  16. Content type: Research

    Due to difficulties of culturing Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) much of the current understanding of HMPV replication can be inferred from other closely related viruses. The slow rates of virus replication preve...

    Authors: Muhammad Raihan Jumat, Tra Nguyen Huong, Puisan Wong, Liat Hui Loo, Boon Huan Tan, Fiona Fenwick, Geoffrey L Toms and Richard J Sugrue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:198

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  17. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the novel avian influenza A virus (H7N9) in three high risk groups. The groups were divided into those exposed through infected individuals, those exposed ...

    Authors: Jie Wu, Lirong Zou, Hanzhong Ni, Lei Pei, Xianqiao Zeng, Lijun Liang, Haojie Zhong, Jianfeng He, Yingchao Song, Min Kang, Xin Zhang, Jinyan Lin and Changwen Ke

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:184

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  18. Content type: Short report

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreak recurrences in Thailand are unpredictable and separated by unexplained and often long silent epidemiological periods that can last for several years. These silent periods cou...

    Authors: Narong Nitatpattana, Kobkan Kanjanopas, Sutee Yoksan, Wichai Satimai, Narong Vongba, Sasiporn Langdatsuwan, Khajornpong Nakgoi, Supot Ratchakum, Nadia Wauquier, Marc Souris, Prasert Auewarakul and Jean-Paul Gonzalez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:183

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  19. Content type: Research

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Recombination frequently occurs within and between NoV genotypes and recombinants have been implicated in sporadic cases, outbreaks a...

    Authors: Janet Mans, Tanya Y Murray and Maureen B Taylor

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:168

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  20. Content type: Review

    Emerging antiviral resistant strains of influenza A virus are greatly limiting the therapies available to stop aggressive infections. Genome changes that confer resistance to the two classes of approved antivi...

    Authors: Alicia M Davis, Bryan J Chabolla and Laura L Newcomb

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:167

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  21. Content type: Short report

    Dengue is the most frequent arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Because dengue manifestations are similar to those of many other febrile syndromes, the availability of dengue-specific laboratory tests is ...

    Authors: Fatiha Najioullah, Florent Viron and Raymond Césaire

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:164

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  22. Content type: Research

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is an evolutionary old RNA virus, which infects brain and blood cells of humans, their primate ancestors, and other mammals. Human infection has been correlated to mood disorders and ...

    Authors: Elham Mazaheri-Tehrani, Nader Maghsoudi, Jamal Shams, Hamid Soori, Hasti Atashi, Fereshteh Motamedi, Liv Bode and Hanns Ludwig

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:161

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  23. Content type: Short report

    Respiratory infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in reptiles; however, the causative agents are only infrequently identified.

    Authors: Lorenzo Uccellini, Robert J Ossiboff, Ricardo EC de Matos, James K Morrisey, Alexandra Petrosov, Isamara Navarrete-Macias, Komal Jain, Allison L Hicks, Elizabeth L Buckles, Rafal Tokarz, Denise McAloose and Walter Ian Lipkin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:144

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  24. Content type: Research

    Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), a single positive-stranded RNA Flavivirus. There is no published evidence of dengue in Zambia. The objective of the study was to det...

    Authors: Mazyanga Lucy Mazaba-Liwewe, Seter Siziya, Mwaka Monze, Idah Mweene-Ndumba, Freddie Masaninga, Peter Songolo, Costantine Malama, Elizabeth Chizema, Peter Mwaba and Olusegun A Babaniyi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:135

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  25. Content type: Commentary

    Virus taxonomy at present is best characterized as a categorization of convenience, without a firm basis in the principles of evolutionary biology. Specifically, virus species definitions appear to depend more...

    Authors: A Townsend Peterson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:131

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  26. Content type: Research

    Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related and following natural or experimental exposure induce similar clinical disease. In humans, encephalitis is the most serious outcome of infection and, hitherto, ...

    Authors: Johanna Dups, Deborah Middleton, Fenella Long, Rachel Arkinstall, Glenn A Marsh and Lin-Fa Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:102

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  27. Content type: Research

    The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes.

    Authors: Nikos Vasilakis, Hilda Guzman, Cadhla Firth, Naomi L Forrester, Steven G Widen, Thomas G Wood, Shannan L Rossi, Elodie Ghedin, Vsevolov Popov, Kim R Blasdell, Peter J Walker and Robert B Tesh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:97

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  28. Content type: Research

    Public health risks associated to infection by human coronaviruses remain considerable and vaccination is a key option for preventing the resurgence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)....

    Authors: Ming Shum Yip, Nancy Hiu Lan Leung, Chung Yan Cheung, Ping Hung Li, Horace Hok Yeung Lee, Marc Daëron, Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris, Roberto Bruzzone and Martial Jaume

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:82

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  29. Content type: Research

    The SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3a protein functions as an ion channel, induces apoptosis and is important for viral pathogenesis. It is expressed on the cell surface and contains a tyrosine-based sorting moti...

    Authors: Rinki Minakshi and Kartika Padhan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:75

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  30. Content type: Short report

    PKV is a new emerging pathogen detected in diarrhea pigs. At present, no more detection methods were reported except RT-PCR method. this study was to develop a fast diagnostic method based on the LAMP reaction...

    Authors: Changlong Li, Jianfei Chen, Hongyan Shi, Xin Zhang, Da Shi, Xiao Han, Yanbin Chi and Li Feng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:73

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  31. Content type: Short report

    The RGD motif in the mosquito-borne flaviviruses envelope protein domain III (EDIII) FG loop was shown to bind negatively charged cellular molecules and mediate virus entry in mammals. However, its importance ...

    Authors: Yan-Jang S Huang, John T Nuckols, Kate M Horne, Dana Vanlandingham, Mario Lobigs and Stephen Higgs

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:60

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  32. Content type: Research

    Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), a rhabdovirus of the genus Lyssavirus which circulates in both pteropid fruit bats and insectivorous bats in mainland Australia, has caused three fatal human infections, the most...

    Authors: Dawn L Weir, Eric D Laing, Ina L Smith, Lin-Fa Wang and Christopher C Broder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:40

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  33. Content type: Research

    Hantaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, which are transmitted to humans primarily via inhalation of aerosolised virus in contaminated rodent urine and faeces. Whilst infected reservoir hosts are asymptom...

    Authors: Tatiana Dupinay, Kieran C Pounder, Florence Ayral, Maria-Halima Laaberki, Denise A Marston, Sandra Lacôte, Catherine Rey, Fabienne Barbet, Katja Voller, Nicolas Nazaret, Marc Artois, Philippe Marianneau, Joel Lachuer, Anthony R Fooks, Michel Pépin, Catherine Legras-Lachuer…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:32

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  34. Content type: Short report

    The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes symptoms similar to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), yet involving an additional component of acute renal failure (AR...

    Authors: Isabella Eckerle, Marcel A Müller, Stephan Kallies, Daniel N Gotthardt and Christian Drosten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:359

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  35. Content type: Research

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic agent in the family Paramyxoviridae that is maintained in nature by bats. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India, and Bangladesh and have been asso...

    Authors: Chad E Mire, Krista M Versteeg, Robert W Cross, Krystle N Agans, Karla A Fenton, Michael A Whitt and Thomas W Geisbert

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:353

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  36. Content type: Research

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel orthobunyavirus of the Simbu serogroup, was first identified in October 2011 in dairy cattle in Germany, where it caused fever, diarrhea and a drop in milk yield. Since then,...

    Authors: Melina Fischer, Horst Schirrmeier, Kerstin Wernike, Anne Wegelt, Martin Beer and Bernd Hoffmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:327

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  37. Content type: Research

    Although human torque teno viruses (TTVs) were first discovered in 1997, still many associated aspects are not clarified yet. The viruses reveal a remarkable heterogeneity and it is possible that some genotype...

    Authors: Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri Farsani, Maarten F Jebbink, Martin Deijs, Marta Canuti, Karel A van Dort, Margreet Bakker, Bart PX Grady, Maria Prins, Formijn J van Hemert, Neeltje A Kootstra and Lia van der Hoek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:323

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  38. Content type: Research

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito borne flavivirus is a pathogen affecting humans in Asia and Africa. ZIKV infection diagnosis relies on serology–which is challenging due to cross-reactions with other flaviviruses...

    Authors: Oumar Faye, Ousmane Faye, Diawo Diallo, Mawlouth Diallo, Manfred Weidmann and Amadou Alpha Sall

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:311

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  39. Content type: Short report

    The newly emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that first appeared in Saudi Arabia during the summer of 2012 has to date (20th September 2013) caused 58 human deaths. MERS-CoV utiliz...

    Authors: Jie Cui, John-Sebastian Eden, Edward C Holmes and Lin-Fa Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:304

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  40. Content type: Research

    Acute gastroenteritis caused by bacteria, virus and parasite is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Rotavirus and norovirus have been recognized as the most common ...

    Authors: Lintao Sai, Jintang Sun, Lihua Shao, Shuai Chen, Haihong Liu and Lixian Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:302

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  41. Content type: Research

    Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV) is a member of the Kobuvirus genus within the Picornaviridae family. PKoV is distributed worldwide with high prevalence in clinically healthy pigs and those with diarrhea.

    Authors: Lei Chen, Ling Zhu, Yuan-cheng Zhou, Zhi-wen Xu, Wan-zhu Guo and Wen-yu Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:281

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  42. Content type: Research

    Even though dengue has been recognized as one of the major public health threats in Pakistan, the understanding of its molecular epidemiology is still limited. The genotypic diversity of Dengue virus (DENV) se...

    Authors: Carmen Koo, Amna Nasir, Hapuarachchige Chanditha Hapuarachchi, Kim-Sung Lee, Zahra Hasan, Lee-Ching Ng and Erum Khan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:275

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  43. Content type: Methodology

    Evidence points to the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like disease. In response, the de...

    Authors: Guangyu Zhao, Lanying Du, Cuiqing Ma, Ye Li, Lin Li, Vincent KM Poon, Lili Wang, Fei Yu, Bo-Jian Zheng, Shibo Jiang and Yusen Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:266

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  44. Content type: Research

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus belonging to the henipavirus genus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Since NiV was first identified in 1999, outbreaks have continued to occur in humans in Bangladesh and India ...

    Authors: Jackie A Pallister, Reuben Klein, Rachel Arkinstall, Jessica Haining, Fenella Long, John R White, Jean Payne, Yan-Ru Feng, Lin-Fa Wang, Christopher C Broder and Deborah Middleton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:237

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  45. Content type: Research

    Usutu virus (USUV), a flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, was identified in South Africa in 1959 and reported for the first time in Europe in 2001. To date, full length genome sequen...

    Authors: Birgit Nikolay, Anne Dupressoir, Cadhla Firth, Ousmane Faye, Cheikh S Boye, Mawlouth Diallo and Amadou A Sall

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:217

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  46. Content type: Research

    CHIKV is a mosquito-borne emerging pathogen that has a major health impact in humans in tropical zones around the globe. A new variant of the virus, E1-A226V caused a large outbreak in the Indian Ocean islands...

    Authors: De Wu, Yonghui Zhang, Qiong ZhouHui, Jing Kou, Wenjia Liang, Huan Zhang, Corina Monagin, Qiaoli Zhang, Wenjie Li, Haojie Zhong, Jianfeng He, Hui Li, Songwu Cai, Changwen Ke and Jinyan Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:174

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  47. Content type: Short report

    Guided by decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus) and the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) in European Russia, we employed RT-PCR to analyze lung tissues of so...

    Authors: Se Hun Gu, Janusz Markowski, Hae Ji Kang, Janusz Hejduk, Beata Sikorska, Paweł P Liberski and Richard Yanagihara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:160

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