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Table 1 Summary characteristics of included randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of ivermectin for patients with COVID-19

From: Ivermectin under scrutiny: a systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy and possible sources of controversies in COVID-19 patients

Author/Year Country Study type Population Intervention arm(s) Control arm Total (N) Age Funding Standard of care Quality Ref
Pott-Junior /2021 Brazil RCT Mild COVID-19 patients 1-SOC + Ivermectin 100mcg/kg
2-SOC + Ivermectin 200mcg/kg
3-SOC + Ivermectin 400mcg/kg
Exposure: N.A
SOC 32 Mean:49.4 (14.6) Non-commercial phase 2a clinical trial conducted at the Federal University of S˜ao Carlos N.A High [33]
Abd-Elsalam /2021 Egypt RCT Hospitalized mild to moderate COVID-19 patients Single dose Ivermectin (12 mg)
 + 
SOC
Exposure: For 3 days
SOC 164 Mean = 40.88 N.A Paracetamol, oxygen, fluids (according to the condition of the patient),
empiric antibiotic, oseltamivir if needed (75 mg/12 h for 5 days),
and invasive mechanical ventilation with hydrocortisone for severe cases if PaO2 less than 60 mm Hg,
O2 saturation less than 90% despite oxygen or noninvasive ventilation,
progressive hypercapnia, respiratory acidosis (pH < 7.3),
and progressive or refractory septic shock
High [34]
Chaccour /2021 Spain RCT Non-severe COVID-19 patients and no risk factors Single dose Ivermectin (400 μg/kg)
Exposure: Single dose at the day of admission
Placebo 24 Range = 18–54, Median = 26 Barcelona Institute for Global Health and Clínica Universidad de Navarra N.A Low [35]
Shahbaznejad /2021 Iran RCT Hospitalized COVID-19 patients Single dose Ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg)
 + 
SOC
Exposure: Single dose at the day of admission
SOC 69 Mean = 46.43(22.51) N.A Hydroxychloroquine
and/or lopinavir/ritonavir
Low [36]
Lopez-Medina /2021 Colombia RCT Mild COVID-19 patients Single dose Ivermectin (300 μg /kg)
Exposure: For 5 days
Placebo 398 Median = 37[26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45] This study received an unrestricted grant from Centro de Estudios en Infectología Pediátrica (grant ScDi823) N.A High [37]
Ravikirti /2021 India RCT Mild to moderate COVID-19 patients Ivermectin 12 mg + SOC
Exposure: For 2 days
Placebo
 + SOC
112 Mean = 52.5(14.7) Financial disclosure provided N.A Low [38]
Shakhsi Niaee /2021 Iran RCT Mild to severe COVID-19 hospitalized patients 1-Single dose ivermectin (200mcg/Kg)
2-Three low interval doses of ivermectin (200, 200, 200 mcg/Kg)
3-Single dose ivermectin (400mcg/Kg)
4- Three high interval doses of ivermectin (400, 200, 200 mcg/Kg)
Exposure: Single dose at the day of admission
1-SOP
2- SOC + Placebo
180 Mean = 56 N.A N.A High [39]
Babalola/2021 Nigeria RCT Confirmed COVID-19 patients 1-Ivermectin 6 mg
2-Ivermectin 12 mg
Exposure: Twice a week for two weeks
Placebo + SOC 62 Mean = 44(14.7) The Central Bank of Nigeria Health Sector Research and Development Intervention Scheme lopinavir/ritonavir daily for 2 weeks plus Low [40]
Vallejos /2021 Argentina RCT Non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients Ivermectin (24/36/48 mg based on patient weight)
 + 
SOC
Exposure: For 2 days
Placebo + SOC 501 Mean = 42(15.5) N.A N.A Low [41]
Mohan /2021 India RCT Mild to moderate COVID-19 patients 1- Ivermectin 12 mg
2- Ivermectin 24 mg
Exposure: Single dose at the day of admission
Placebo 125 Mean = 35.3(10.4) Science and Engineering ResearchBoard, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India N.A Low [42]
Okumus /2021 Turkey RCT Hospitalized COVID-19 patients Ivermectin 200 mcg/kg/day
Exposure: For 5 days
SOC 60 Mean = 62.20(13.00) Afyonkarahisar Health Science University Scientific Research project Coordination Unit Project N.A High [43]
Mahmud/2021 Bangladesh RCT Mild to moderate COVID-19 patients Ivermectin 12 mg + doxycycline + SOC
Exposure: Twice daily for 5 days
Placebo
 + 
SOC
400 Mean = 40(13.00) N.A Standard of care included administration of paracetamol, antihistamines, cough suppressants, vitamins, oxygen therapy according to indication and need, low molecular weight heparin according to indication, appropriate other broad-spectrum antibiotics, remdesivir injection, other antiviral drugs, and other drugs for associated comorbid conditions Some concerns [44]
Ahmed /2021 Bangladesh RCT Confirmed COVID-19 patients within 7 days of symptoms onset 1- Ivermectin 12 mg
2- Ivermectin 12 mg + doxycycline
Exposure: For 5 days
Placebo 72 Mean: 42 This work was supported by Beximco Pharmaceutical Limited, Bangladesh N.A Some concerns [45]
Krolewieckia /2021 Argentina RCT Confirmed COVID-19 patients within 5 days of symptoms onset Ivermectin 0.6 mg/kg + SOC
Exposure: For 5 days
SOC 45 N.A This work was supported by grant IP-COVID-19–625 N.A High [32]
Saxena / 2021 India RCT Patients presenting with SARS-COV-2 infection Ivermectin 0.2 mg/kg + SOC
Exposure: Single dose at the day of admission
SOC 84 Median = 25 (16 – 32) N.A Symptomatic treatment, zinc, and vitamin C High [46]
Hashim /2021 Iraq RCT Outpatient/ Inpatient COVID-19 patients Ivermectin 200 µg/kg per day for two days, and in some patients who needed more time to recover, a third dose 200 µg/kg PO per day was given 7 days after the first dose + Doxycycline + SOC
Exposure: For 2/3 days
SOC 140 Mean = 48.7 ± 8.6 Alkarkh Health General Directorate Vitamin C, D, and zinc, azithromycin, dexamethasone and oxygen supply if needed High [47]
Buonfrate /2022 Italy RCT Confirmed COVID-19 patients 1- Ivermectin 600 μg/kg,
2- Ivermectin 1200 μg/kg. (The authors claimed that in all RCTs to date, they have utilized the highest dose of Ivermectin)
Exposure: For 5 days
Placebo 93 Median = 47.0 [31.0–58.0] Italian Ministry of Health ‘Fondi Ricerca Corrente’ to IRCCS Sacro Cuore Don Calabria Hospital N.A Low [20]
Lim / 2022 Malaysia RCT Confirmed COVID-19 patients within the first week of symptom onset 0.4 mg/kg body weight daily + SOC
Exposure: For 5 days
SOC 490 Mean: 62.5(8.7) N.A Symptomatic therapy and monitoring for signs of early deterioration based on clinical findings, laboratory test results,and chest imaging High [19]
Reis / 2022 Brazil RCT Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2–positive adults 0.4 mg/kg body weight daily + SOC
Exposure: For 3 days
SOC 1358 Median = 49.0 [38.0–57.0] Funded by FastGrants and the Rainwater Charitable Foundation; TOGETHER ClinicalTrials.gov Usual standard care for Covid-19 provided by health care professionals in Brazil Low [24]