Skip to main content

Table 3 Effects of different doses of ATRA and H9N2 virus on the survival of mice

From: All-trans retinoic acid increases the pathogenicity of the H9N2 influenza virus in mice

Clinical application of ATRA Groups Dosage of ATRA (mg/kg) Time post-infection (days)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 19
  Blanka 0 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20)
Low therapeutic dose ATRA1b 1 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22)
Medium therapeutic dose ATRA2c 5 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20)
  ATRA3d 10 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22)
High therapeutic dose ATRA4e 20 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20)
Toxic dose ATRA5f 40 100 (18/18) 100 (18/18) 100 (18/18) 100 (18/18) 100 (18/18) 89 (16/18) 56 (10/18) 0 (0/18)∆∆
  ATRA6g 60 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 82 (18/22) 27 (6/22) 0 (0/22)∆∆
  ATRA7h 80 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 27 (6/22) 0 (0/22) 0 (0/22) 0 (0/22)∆∆
  H9N2i 0 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20) 100 (20/20)
Low therapeutic dose ATRA1 + H9N2j 1 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22)
Medium therapeutic dose ATRA2 + H9N2k 5 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 95 (21/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22)
  ATRA3 + H9N2l 10 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 95 (21/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22)
High therapeutic dose ATRA4 + H9N2m 20 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 95 (21/22) 95 (21/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22)
Toxic dose ATRA5 + H9N2n 40 100 (22/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 91 (20/22) 82 (18/22) 82 (18/22) 73 (16/22) 0 (0/22) ##**
  ATRA6 + H9N2o 60 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 45 (10/22) 0 (0/22) 0 (0/22) ##**
  ATRA7 + H9N2p 80 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 100 (22/22) 91 (20/22) 36 (8/22) 0 (0/22) 0 (0/22) 0 (0/22)**
  1. Data are presented as survival rate (%) (the number of mice alive/total number of mice observed). n = 18–22. Statistical analyses were performed with the log-rank test. ATRA group or H9N2 group compared with blank group: ∆, P < 0.05; ∆∆, P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with ATRA group: #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with H9N2 group: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. a: Blank, mice administered sterile PBS inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; b–h: ATRA1-ATRA7, mice administered sterile PBS inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively); i: H9N2, mice administered H9N2 virus (105TCID50) inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; j–p: ATRA1 + H9N2-ATRA7 + H9N2, mice administered H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). Mice that lost more than 30% of their original body weight were euthanized and considered dead on that day. ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; TCID50, median tissue culture infective dose