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Table 2 Effects of different doses of ATRA and H9N2 virus on food intake in mice

From: All-trans retinoic acid increases the pathogenicity of the H9N2 influenza virus in mice

Clinical application of ATRA Groups Dosage of ATRA (mg/kg) Time post-infection (days)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 19
  Blanka 0 113.1 ± 4.8 112.7 ± 4.7 110.0 ± 4.0 92.0 ± 5.2 96.7 ± 4.7 112.0 ± 5.6 124.0 ± 7.2 120.0 ± 5.9
Low therapeutic dose ATRA1b 1 110.7 ± 5.9 109.5 ± 6.3 105.1 ± 6.1 87.4 ± 7.3 89.7 ± 7.6 98.8 ± 9.6 119.0 ± 4.4 122.8 ± 5.2
Medium therapeutic dose ATRA2c 5 117.6 ± 6.3 114.3 ± 5.5 105.3 ± 6.1 91.8 ± 5.1 88.2 ± 5.6 100.4 ± 7.2 122.4 ± 8.6 119.9 ± 6.9
  ATRA3d 10 115.1 ± 5.6 112.3 ± 6.2 102.3 ± 9.1 90.5 ± 10.7 86.7 ± 8.9 100.4 ± 8.9 107.2 ± 7.9 109.9 ± 7.9
High therapeutic dose ATRA4e 20 86.1 ± 9.4∆∆ 80.3 ± 13.3 79.4 ± 13.8 65.3 ± 16.9 61.1 ± 16.2∆∆ 63.9 ± 15.3∆∆ 78.3 ± 12.2∆∆ 87.9 ± 7.9∆∆
Toxic dose ATRA5f 40 68.3 ± 6.0∆∆ 43.0 ± 10.9∆∆ 35.1 ± 12.4∆∆ 17.7 ± 7.4∆∆ 15.9 ± 7.6∆∆ 15.9 ± 6.9∆∆ 22.1 ± 7.8∆∆
  ATRA6g 60 54.6 ± 6.9∆∆ 31.2 ± 7.3∆∆ 24.1 ± 7.4∆∆ 25.5 ± 7.0∆∆ 18.1 ± 5.5∆∆ 13.4 ± 5.0∆∆ 19.5 ± 5.7∆∆
  ATRA7h 80 39.3 ± 7.1∆∆ 13.2 ± 4.5∆∆ 17.6 ± 7.1∆∆ 6.9 ± 3.7∆∆ 6.9 ± 3.7∆∆
  H9N2i 0 109.8 ± 5.9 103.6 ± 5.8 87.3 ± 4.0 55.4 ± 4.1∆∆ 54.4 ± 5.3∆∆ 138.4 ± 7.4 136.5 ± 4.8 124.1 ± 8.6
Low therapeutic dose ATRA1 + H9N2j 1 87.5 ± 12.4# 63.9 ± 7.7##** 44.5 ± 11.8##** 79.8 ± 14.2 86.7 ± 14.8* 104.2 ± 14.9* 127.0 ± 12.4 133.7 ± 7.2
Medium therapeutic dose ATRA2 + H9N2k 5 32.0 ± 5.3##** 36.8 ± 7.2##** 52.2 ± 7.2##** 78.6 ± 10.6* 86.8 ± 8.5** 109.5 ± 5.8** 136.1 ± 10.2 161.1 ± 11.1
  ATRA3 + H9N2l 10 32.4 ± 5.2##** 56.6 ± 7.4##** 67.9 ± 9.5## 79.1 ± 10.2* 100.5 ± 7.8** 117.7 ± 3.8* 118.6 ± 2.6* 134.0 ± 5.0#
High therapeutic dose ATRA4 + H9N2m 20 46.4 ± 6.7##** 43.4 ± 11.2##** 36.6 ± 8.4##** 43.6 ± 8.3 59.6 ± 9.2 74.5 ± 9.8** 96.8 ± 6.1** 97.7 ± 6.4*
Toxic dose ATRA5 + H9N2n 40 34.9 ± 7.6##** 39.0 ± 8.3** 54.6 ± 6.2** 41.8 ± 8.0# 43.4 ± 7.8## 44.4 ± 7.6##** 46.1 ± 7.4#**
  ATRA6 + H9N2o 60 24.5 ± 7.5##** 17.9 ± 6.5** 22.6 ± 7.4** 15.7 ± 5.8** 22.6 ± 6.6** 18.2 ± 5.9**
  ATRA7 + H9N2p 80 21.2 ± 5.7#** 9.1 ± 3.9** 6.6 ± 2.9** 4.8 ± 2.5** 3.0 ± 1.9**
  1. Data are presented as mean of the change rate of food intake (%) ± SD. Change rate of food intake (%) = food intake per day/initial food intake × 100%. n = 10–11. Statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. ATRA group or H9N2 group compared with blank group: ∆, P < 0.05; ∆∆, P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with ATRA group: #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with H9N2 group: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. a: Blank, mice administered sterile PBS inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; b-h: ATRA1-ATRA7, mice administered sterile PBS inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively); i: H9N2, mice administered H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; j-p: ATRA1 + H9N2-ATRA7 + H9N2, mice administered H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; TCID50, median tissue culture infective dose