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Table 1 Effects of different doses of ATRA and H9N2 virus on the body weight of mice

From: All-trans retinoic acid increases the pathogenicity of the H9N2 influenza virus in mice

Clinical application of ATRA Groups Dosage of ATRA (mg/kg) Time post-infection (days)
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 19
  Blanka 0 104.0 ± 2.9 104.6 ± 3.3 104.0 ± 2.9 104.4 ± 3.1 104.6 ± 3.1 105.2 ± 3.9 106.7 ± 3.3 112.7 ± 3.1
Low therapeutic dose ATRA1b 1 103.9 ± 1.1 104.9 ± 1.1 105.4 ± 1.3 104.6 ± 1.4 104.7 ± 1.8 105.7 ± 1.9 107.6 ± 2.5 112.7 ± 2.3
Medium therapeutic dose ATRA2c 5 104.7 ± 1.9 105.2 ± 1.9 105.7 ± 2.1 104.6 ± 2.2 104.9 ± 1.8 106.0 ± 1.9 108.2 ± 2.4 111.1 ± 2.8
  ATRA3d 10 104.4 ± 1.7 104.7 ± 2.0 104.6 ± 2.1 104.3 ± 2.6 104.7 ± 1.8 105.5 ± 2.0 105.8 ± 2.1 108.9 ± 2.6
High therapeutic dose ATRA4e 20 100.8 ± 3.2 100.3 ± 2.8 100.2 ± 2.7 98.8 ± 2.6∆∆ 99.0 ± 3.1∆∆ 99.3 ± 3.8∆∆ 101.3 ± 3.1∆∆ 105.4 ± 2.2
Toxic dose ATRA5f 40 97.6 ± 2.7∆∆ 93.9 ± 3.2∆∆ 90.0 ± 3.6∆∆ 85.1 ± 4.3∆∆ 81.6 ± 4.0∆∆ 76.5 ± 4.9∆∆ 76.3 ± 4.8∆∆
  ATRA6g 60 96.1 ± 1.5∆∆ 90.6 ± 2.1∆∆ 87.5 ± 3.0∆∆ 83.2 ± 2.9∆∆ 79.5 ± 2.7∆∆ 74.7 ± 2.6∆∆ 73.9 ± 3.3∆∆
  ATRA7h 80 92.5 ± 2.5∆∆ 87.1 ± 2.3∆∆ 82.1 ± 2.5∆∆ 76.5 ± 3.0∆∆ 73.4 ± 2.8∆∆
  H9N2i 0 100.2 ± 1.2 99.6 ± 1.3∆∆ 97.5 ± 1.2∆∆ 93.2 ± 2.5∆∆ 90.9 ± 2.8∆∆ 103.5 ± 3.7 105.4 ± 3.1 110.8 ± 4.5
Low therapeutic dose ATRA1 + H9N2j 1 98.8 ± 5.7 95.6 ± 7.7# 93.2 ± 7.6## 91.0 ± 9.5## 95.9 ± 12.3 100.2 ± 13.7 102.6 ± 10.9 109.9 ± 5.1
Medium therapeutic dose ATRA2 + H9N2k 5 94.7 ± 2.9##** 91.5 ± 3.1##** 90.6 ± 5.6##* 93.0 ± 8.8# 94.3 ± 11.0 97.3 ± 12.4 101.6 ± 12.0 113.9 ± 5.4
  ATRA3 + H9N2l 10 93.5 ± 2.3##** 91.8 ± 3.1##** 92.2 ± 4.1##* 92.6 ± 6.2## 95.0 ± 7.0# 97.5 ± 7.4# 100.3 ± 7.6 109.5 ± 5.3
High therapeutic dose ATRA4 + H9N2m 20 91.9 ± 4.1##** 90.4 ± 4.1##** 89.5 ± 3.8##** 90.2 ± 4.3## 92.3 ± 4.2## 92.9 ± 4.1##** 95.3 ± 4.2##** 103.3 ± 3.4**
Toxic dose ATRA5 + H9N2n 40 89.2 ± 6.0##** 88.8 ± 7.1** 88.4 ± 7.3* 85.1 ± 6.6** 85.2 ± 4.0** 82.0 ± 4.6** 79.0 ± 3.6**
  ATRA6 + H9N2o 60 94.1 ± 2.3** 90.1 ± 3.4** 86.9 ± 3.5** 81.6 ± 2.9** 77.5 ± 4.3** 73.3 ± 2.9**
  ATRA7 + H9N2p 80 90.5 ± 3.3** 86.1 ± 2.8** 81.2 ± 3.0** 75.6 ± 3.2** 70.7 ± 0.8**
  1. Data are presented as mean of the rate of weight change (%) ± SD. Rate of weight change (%) = daily weight/initial weight × 100%. n = 10–11. Statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. ATRA group or H9N2 group compared with blank group: ∆, P < 0.05; ∆∆, P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with ATRA group: #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with H9N2 group: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. a: Blank, mice receiving sterile PBS inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; b–h: ATRA1-ATRA7, mice receiving sterile PBS inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively); i: H9N2, mice receiving H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; j–p: ATRA1 + H9N2-ATRA7 + H9N2, mice receiving H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; TCID50, median tissue culture infective dose