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Table 1 Effects of different doses of ATRA and H9N2 virus on the body weight of mice

From: All-trans retinoic acid increases the pathogenicity of the H9N2 influenza virus in mice

Clinical application of ATRA

Groups

Dosage of ATRA (mg/kg)

Time post-infection (days)

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

19

 

Blanka

0

104.0 ± 2.9

104.6 ± 3.3

104.0 ± 2.9

104.4 ± 3.1

104.6 ± 3.1

105.2 ± 3.9

106.7 ± 3.3

112.7 ± 3.1

Low therapeutic dose

ATRA1b

1

103.9 ± 1.1

104.9 ± 1.1

105.4 ± 1.3

104.6 ± 1.4

104.7 ± 1.8

105.7 ± 1.9

107.6 ± 2.5

112.7 ± 2.3

Medium therapeutic dose

ATRA2c

5

104.7 ± 1.9

105.2 ± 1.9

105.7 ± 2.1

104.6 ± 2.2

104.9 ± 1.8

106.0 ± 1.9

108.2 ± 2.4

111.1 ± 2.8

 

ATRA3d

10

104.4 ± 1.7

104.7 ± 2.0

104.6 ± 2.1

104.3 ± 2.6

104.7 ± 1.8

105.5 ± 2.0

105.8 ± 2.1

108.9 ± 2.6

High therapeutic dose

ATRA4e

20

100.8 ± 3.2

100.3 ± 2.8

100.2 ± 2.7

98.8 ± 2.6∆∆

99.0 ± 3.1∆∆

99.3 ± 3.8∆∆

101.3 ± 3.1∆∆

105.4 ± 2.2

Toxic dose

ATRA5f

40

97.6 ± 2.7∆∆

93.9 ± 3.2∆∆

90.0 ± 3.6∆∆

85.1 ± 4.3∆∆

81.6 ± 4.0∆∆

76.5 ± 4.9∆∆

76.3 ± 4.8∆∆

 

ATRA6g

60

96.1 ± 1.5∆∆

90.6 ± 2.1∆∆

87.5 ± 3.0∆∆

83.2 ± 2.9∆∆

79.5 ± 2.7∆∆

74.7 ± 2.6∆∆

73.9 ± 3.3∆∆

 

ATRA7h

80

92.5 ± 2.5∆∆

87.1 ± 2.3∆∆

82.1 ± 2.5∆∆

76.5 ± 3.0∆∆

73.4 ± 2.8∆∆

 

H9N2i

0

100.2 ± 1.2

99.6 ± 1.3∆∆

97.5 ± 1.2∆∆

93.2 ± 2.5∆∆

90.9 ± 2.8∆∆

103.5 ± 3.7

105.4 ± 3.1

110.8 ± 4.5

Low therapeutic dose

ATRA1 + H9N2j

1

98.8 ± 5.7

95.6 ± 7.7#

93.2 ± 7.6##

91.0 ± 9.5##

95.9 ± 12.3

100.2 ± 13.7

102.6 ± 10.9

109.9 ± 5.1

Medium therapeutic dose

ATRA2 + H9N2k

5

94.7 ± 2.9##**

91.5 ± 3.1##**

90.6 ± 5.6##*

93.0 ± 8.8#

94.3 ± 11.0

97.3 ± 12.4

101.6 ± 12.0

113.9 ± 5.4

 

ATRA3 + H9N2l

10

93.5 ± 2.3##**

91.8 ± 3.1##**

92.2 ± 4.1##*

92.6 ± 6.2##

95.0 ± 7.0#

97.5 ± 7.4#

100.3 ± 7.6

109.5 ± 5.3

High therapeutic dose

ATRA4 + H9N2m

20

91.9 ± 4.1##**

90.4 ± 4.1##**

89.5 ± 3.8##**

90.2 ± 4.3##

92.3 ± 4.2##

92.9 ± 4.1##**

95.3 ± 4.2##**

103.3 ± 3.4**

Toxic dose

ATRA5 + H9N2n

40

89.2 ± 6.0##**

88.8 ± 7.1**

88.4 ± 7.3*

85.1 ± 6.6**

85.2 ± 4.0**

82.0 ± 4.6**

79.0 ± 3.6**

 

ATRA6 + H9N2o

60

94.1 ± 2.3**

90.1 ± 3.4**

86.9 ± 3.5**

81.6 ± 2.9**

77.5 ± 4.3**

73.3 ± 2.9**

 

ATRA7 + H9N2p

80

90.5 ± 3.3**

86.1 ± 2.8**

81.2 ± 3.0**

75.6 ± 3.2**

70.7 ± 0.8**

  1. Data are presented as mean of the rate of weight change (%) ± SD. Rate of weight change (%) = daily weight/initial weight × 100%. n = 10–11. Statistical analyses were performed with one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction. ATRA group or H9N2 group compared with blank group: ∆, P < 0.05; ∆∆, P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with ATRA group: #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with H9N2 group: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. a: Blank, mice receiving sterile PBS inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; b–h: ATRA1-ATRA7, mice receiving sterile PBS inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively); i: H9N2, mice receiving H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and cottonseed oil injection; j–p: ATRA1 + H9N2-ATRA7 + H9N2, mice receiving H9N2 virus (105 TCID50) inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/kg, respectively). ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; TCID50, median tissue culture infective dose