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Fig. 4 | Virology Journal

Fig. 4

From: All-trans retinoic acid increases the pathogenicity of the H9N2 influenza virus in mice

Fig. 4

Effects of therapeutic dose of ATRA on clinical signs and survival of mice infected with H9N2 virus. (ac) Body weight is presented as mean of the rate of weight change (%) ± SD. Rate of weight change (%) = daily weight/initial weight × 100%. n = 10–12. (df) Food intake is presented as mean of the change rate of food intake (%). Change rate of food intake (%) = food intake per day/initial food intake × 100%. n = 10–12. (gi) Survival rate (%) = the number of mice alive/total number of mice observed. n = 22–24. Mice that lost more than 30% of their original body weight were euthanized and considered dead on that day. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA or the log-rank test. ATRA group or H9N2 group compared with blank group: ∆, P < 0.05; ∆∆, P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with ATRA group: #P < 0.05; ##P < 0.01; ATRA + H9N2 group compared with H9N2 group: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01. Blank, mice receiving sterile PBS inoculation and cottonseed oil injection at 0–9 days after inoculation; ATRA1-ATRA3, mice receiving sterile PBS inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively) at 0–9 days after inoculation; H9N2, mice receiving H9N2 virus (105.5 TCID50) inoculation and cottonseed oil injection at 0–9 days after inoculation; ATRA1 + H9N2-ATRA3 + H9N2, mice receiving H9N2 virus (105.5 TCID50) inoculation and ATRA injection (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively) at 0–9 days after inoculation. ATRA, all-trans retinoic acid; TCID50, median tissue culture infective dose

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