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Table 1 Demographic and clinical features of COVID-19 transplant patients including the association between the living and deceased groups (N = 245)

From: Evaluation of the therapeutic regimen in COVID-19 in transplant patients: where do immunomodulatory and antivirals stand?

Variable Total (%); n = 245 Mortality (%) P value*
Alive; n = 225 Death; n = 20
Age group
< 40 109 (44) 97 (43) 12 (60) 0.97
40–60 87 (36) 84 (37) 3 (15)  
> 60 49 (20) 44 (20) 5 (25)  
Gender
Male 128 (52) 120 (53) 8 (40) 0.70
Female 117 (48) 105 (47) 12 (60)  
Comorbid diseases
Hypertension 97 (40) 92 (41) 9 (45) 0.17
Diabetes mellitus 25 (10) 18 (8) 7 (35) < 0.01
Ischemic heart disease 67 (27) 60 (27) 7 (35) 0.01
Encephalopathy 2 (1) 2 (1) 0 (0) 1.00
Ascites 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 1.00
Deep venous thrombosis 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0) 1.00
Asthma 0 (0)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 0 (0)
Symptoms
Dyspnea 191 (78) 181 (80) 10 (50) 0.19
Fever 166 (68) 160 (71) 6 (30) 1.00
Malaise 107 (44) 99 (44) 8 (40) 1.00
Cough 91 (37) 90 (40) 1 (5) 0.27
Vomiting 145 (59) 141 (63) 4 (20) 0.68
Headache 88 (36) 88 (39) 0 (0) 0.34
Diarrhea 190 (78) 187 (83) 3 (15) 1.00
Chest pain 36 (15) 30 (13) 6 (30) 1.00
Rhinorrhea 14 (6) 14 (6) 0 (0) 1.00
Pharyngitis 0 (0)
Severity
Moderate 178 (71.4) 174 4  
Severe 28 (11.4) 21 7 0.039
Critical 39 (15.9) 30 9  
Transplantation status
Kidney transplant 143 (58) 134 (60) 9 (45) 0.44
Liver transplant 95 (39) 84 (37) 11 (55)  
Simultaneous pancreas-kidney 1 (0) 1 (0) 0 (0)  
Isolated bowel transplant 3 (1) 3 (1) 0 (0)  
Multivisceral transplant 3 (1) 3 (1) 0 (0)  
Time after transplant (months)
1–3 69 (28) 63 (28) 6 (30) 0.021
3–6 111 (45) 110 (49) 1 (5)  
6–12 35 (14) 32 (14) 3 (15)  
> 12 30 (12) 20 (9) 10 (50)  
Rejection
During hospitalization after COVID-19 22 (9) 20 (9) 2 (10) 0.22
O2 therapy
Nasal cannula 79 (32) 70 (31) 9 (45) < 0.01
Mechanical ventilation 59 (24) 48 (21) 11 (55)  
None 107 (44) 107 (48) 0 (0)  
Immunosuppressive medication
Regimens     0.29
 Calcineurin inhibitors + Mycophenolate Mofetil 70 (29) 61 (27) 9 (45)  
 Mycophenolate Mofetil + Prednisolone 29 (12) 25 (11) 4 (20)  
 Calcineurin inhibitors + Prednisolone 142 (58) 136 (60) 6 (30)  
 mTOR inhibitors 3 (1) 2 (1) 1 (5)  
Changes     0.17
 No Change 101 (41) 99 (44) 2 (10)  
 Decreasing the dose of Calcineurin inhibitors and Discontinue antimetabolite 90 (37) 88 (39) 2 (10)  
 Discontinue all immunosuppressive 51 (21) 35 (16) 16 (80)  
 Discontinue mTOR inhibitors 3 (1) 3 (1) 0 (0)  
Treatment
Hydroxychloroquine 79 (32) 67 (30) 12 (60) 0.33
Lopinavir/ritonavir 90 (37) 71 (32) 19 (95) < 0.01
Corticosteroid 136 (56) 125 (56) 11 (55) 0.06
 Methylprednisolone 64 (26) 61 (27) 3 (15) 0.06
 Dexamethasone 72 (29) 64 (28) 8 (40) 0.66
Interferon 55 (22) 46 (20) 9 (45) 0.34
Remdesivir 102 (42) 92 (41) 10 (50) 0.02
Tocilizumab 60 (24) 53 (24) 7 (35) 0.70
  1. *Chi-square and Fisher exact tests