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Table 3 Plant activators and microbes that induce host resistance against plant viruses

From: Resistance induction based on the understanding of molecular interactions between plant viruses and host plants

Plant activator and microbea Virusb Host Resistance Hormonesc Reference
ASM PIAMV, PVX, TuMV, CCYV Nicotiana benthamiana,Cucumis melo Systemic SA [131, 132]
BABA TMV N. tabacum HR SA [133]
Probenazol TMV N. tabacum HR SA [134]
  TMV N. benthamiana Systemic BR [135]
Brassinosteroid RSV Oyaza sativa Systemic JA/BR [136]
  CMV Cucurbita pepo Systemic BR [137]
Chitosan TBSV Phaseolus vulgaris HR SA [138]
Quassinoids TMV N. tabacum, N. glutinosa Systemic, HR Not reported [139]
Quinolizidine alkaloids TMV N. tabacum Systemic Not reported [140]
Harpin popW TMV N. tabacum HR SA [141]
Soluble silicon TRSV, TMV N. tabacum Systemic SA [142]
Esterified whey protein fractions (EWPF) TMV N. tabacum HR SA [143]
Eudesmanolides TMV N. tabacum, N. glutinosa Systemic, HR SA [144]
Spermine and longer polyamines CMV Arabidopsis thaliana Systemic SA [145]
PABA TMV Capsicum annuum Systemic SA [146]
Eugenol TYLCV Solanum lycopersicum Systemic SA [147]
Ningnanmicin TMV N. tabacum Systemic SA [148]
SHAM CMV A. thaliana Systemic SA [149]
Ascorobic acid TuMV Brassica rapa Systemic JA [150]
2,3-butanediol CMV, TMV C. annuum Systemic SA/JA/ET [151]
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain MBI600 TSWV, PVY S. lycopersicum Systemic SA [152]
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 5B6 BBWV, CMV, PepMoV C. annuum Systemic SA / JA [153]
Penicillium simplicissimum CMV A. thaliana, N. tabacum, N. benthamiana Systemic SA/ JA/ET [154]
Trichoderma harzianum strain T-22 (T22) CMV S. lycopersicum Systemic SA/JA/ET [155]
Pseudozyma churashimaensis (Yeast) CMV, PeMMoV, PeMoV, BBWV C. annuum Systemic SA/JA/ET [156]
  1. aASM, acibenzolar-S-methyl; BABA, β- aminobutyric acid; SHAM, salicylhydroxamic acid; PABA, para-aminobenzoic acid
  2. bAbbreviations are explained in Table 1
  3. cBR, brassinosteroid; SA, salisylic acid; JA, jasmonic acid; ET, ethylene