Skip to main content

Table 1 Speculated timelines for evolutionary origins of known human coronaviruses from bats

From: Evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants

Species Discovery in humans Speculated timeline of divergence for human strain Speculated bat reservoir References
SARS-CoV-2 2019 Human strain likely diverged from most closely related bat virus in 1969 Rhinolophus spp. [32, 294, 295]
SARS-CoV 2003 Human strain likely diverged from bat strain in 1986 Rhinolophus spp. [22, 53, 280, 296,297,298]
MERS-CoV 2012 Human strain likely diverged from bat strain before 1990 Taphozous perforates, Pipistrellus spp., Neoromecia spp. [282, 299,300,301,302,303,304,305]
HCoV-OC43 1967 Human strain likely diverged from bovine strain in 1890 N/A [276, 306]
HCoV-HKU1 2004 No supported dates of divergence have been established N/A [279]
HCoV-229E 1965 Human strain likely diverged from alpaca strain before 1960 and from bat strain between 1686 and 1800 CE Hipposideros caffer ruber [21, 56, 307]
HCoV-NL63 2004 Human strain likely diverged from bat strain between 1190 and 1449 CE Triaenops afer [20, 308,309,310]