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Table 2 Descriptive demographics of COVID-19 patients across treatment groups

From: Antiviral drugs arbidol and interferon alpha-1b contribute to reducing the severity of COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study

   Lopinavir–ritonavir IFN-α Arbidol Ribavirin
  Total (n = 403) Yes (n = 335) No (n = 68) p-value Yes (n = 341) No (n = 62) p-value Yes
(n = 151)
No
(n = 252)
p-value Yes
(n = 112)
No
(n = 291)
p-value
Age (yrs, median, IQR) 48[35, 60] 49[35, 61] 45[35, 57] 0.42 49[35, 61] 43[34, 56] 0.071 46[33, 61] 49[36, 60] 0.23 56[40, 64] 46[32, 57] 6.1E−07
Sex M:203 (50.4%) F:200 (49.6%) M:169 (50.4%) F:166 (49.6%) M:34 (50.0%) F:34 (50.0%) 0.95 M:169 (49.6%) F:172 (50.4%) M:34 (54.8%) F:28 (45.2%) 0.44 M:84 (55.6%) F:67 (44.4%) M:119 (47.2%) F:133 (52.8%) 0.10 M:65 (58.0%) F:47 (42.0%) M:138 (47.4%) F:153 (52.6%) 0.056
Fever #No. of cases (%) Y:282 (70.0%) N:121 (30.0%) Y:247 (73.7%) N:88 (26.3%) Y:35 (51.5%) N:33 (48.5%) 2.4E−04 Y:254 (74.5%) N:87 (25.5%) Y:28 (45.2%) N:34 (54.8%) 2.8E−06 Y:100 (66.2%) N:51 (33.8%) Y:182 (72.2%) N:70 (27.8%) 0.21 Y:85 (75.9%) N:27 (24.1%) Y:197 (67.7%) N:94 (32.3%) 0.11
Cough Y:214 (53.1%) N:189 (46.9%) Y:182 (54.3%) N:153 (45.7%) Y:32 (47.1%) N:36 (52.9%) 0.27 Y:179 (52.5%) N:162 (47.5%) Y:35 (56.5%) N:27 (43.5%) 0.57 Y:73 (48.3%) N:78 (51.7%) Y:141 (56.0%) N:111 (44.0%) 0.14 Y:72 (64.3%) N:40 (35.7%) Y:142 (48.8%) N:149 (51.2%) 0.005
Fatigue Y:76 (18.9%) N:327 (81.1%) Y:61 (18.2%) N:274 (81.8%) Y:15 (22.1%) N:53 (77.9%) 0.46 Y:70 (20.5%) N:271 (79.5%) Y:6 (9.7%) N:56 (90.3%) 0.045 Y:20 (13.2%) N:131 (86.8%) Y:56 (22.2%) N:196 (77.8%) 0.026 Y:27 (24.1%) N:85 (75.9%) Y:49 (16.8%) N:242 (83.2%) 0.095
Running nose Y:44 (10.9%) N:359 (89.1%) Y:32 (9.6%) N:303 (90.4%) Y:12 (17.6%) N:56 (82.4%) 0.051 Y:37 (10.9%) N:304 (89.1%) Y:7 (11.3%) N:55 (88.7%) 0.92 Y:20 (13.2%) N:131 (86.8%) Y:24 (9.5%) N:228 (90.5%) 0.25 Y:16 (14.3%) N:96 (85.7%) Y:28 (9.6%) N:263 (90.4%) 0.18
Headache Y:68 (16.9%) N:335 (83.1%) Y:54 (16.1%) N:281 (83.9%) Y:14 (20.6%) N:54 (79.4%) 0.37 Y:56 (16.4%) N:285 (83.6%) Y:12 (19.4%) N:50 (80.6%) 0.57 Y:27 (17.9%) N:124 (82.1%) Y:41 (16.3%) N:211 (83.7%) 0.68 Y:19 (17.0%) N:93 (83.0%) Y:49 (16.8%) N:242 (83.2%) 0.97
Diarrhea Y:39 (9.7%) N:364 (90.3%) Y:35 (10.4%) N:300 (89.6%) Y:4 (5.9%) N:64 (94.1%) 0.25 Y:33 (9.7%) N:308 (90.3%) Y:6 (9.7%) N:56 (90.3%) 1.00 Y:14 (9.3%) N:137 (90.7%) Y:25 (9.9%) N:227 (90.1%) 0.83 Y:13 (11.6%) N:99 (88.4%) Y:26 (8.9%) N:265 (91.1%) 0.42
Nausea Y:13 (3.2%) N:390 (96.8%) Y:11 (3.3%) N:324 (96.7%) Y:2 (2.9%) N:66 (97.1%) 0.88 Y:11 (3.2%) N:330 (96.8%) Y:2 (3.2%) N:60 (96.8%) 1.00 Y:4 (2.6%) N:147 (97.4%) Y:9 (3.6%) N:243 (96.4%) 0.61 Y:6 (5.4%) N:106 (94.6%) Y:7 (2.4%) N:284 (97.6%) 0.13
Respiratory symptom Y:18 (4.5%) N:385 (95.5%) Y:16 (4.8%) N:319 (95.2%) Y:2 (2.9%) N:66 (97.1%) 0.51 Y:15 (4.4%) N:326 (95.6%) Y:3 (4.8%) N:59 (95.2%) 0.88 Y:6 (4.0%) N:145 (96.0%) Y:12 (4.8%) N:240 (95.2%) 0.71 Y:7 (6.2%) N:105 (93.8%) Y:11 (3.8%) N:280 (96.2%) 0.28
Pharyngalgia Y:71 (17.6%) N:332 (82.4%) Y:62 (18.5%) N:273 (81.5%) Y:9 (13.2%) N:59 (86.8%) 0.30 Y:61 (17.9%) N:280 (82.1%) Y:10 (16.1%) N:52 (83.9%) 0.74 Y:29 (19.2%) N:122 (80.8%) Y:42 (16.7%) N:210 (83.3%) 0.52 Y:18 (16.1%) N:94 (83.9%) Y:53 (18.2%) N:238 (81.8%) 0.61
Myalgia Y:54 (13.4%) N:349 (86.6%) Y:51 (15.2%) N:284 (84.8%) Y:3 (4.4%) N:65 (95.6%) 0.017 Y:49 (14.4%) N:292 (85.6%) Y:5 (8.1%) N:57 (91.9%) 0.18 Y:22 (14.6%) N:129 (85.4%) Y:32 (12.7%) N:220 (87.3%) 0.60 Y:22 (19.6%) N:90 (80.4%) Y:32 (11.0%) N:259 (89.0%) 0.022
Chest symptom Y:39 (9.7%) N:364 (90.3%) Y:33 (9.9%) N:302 (90.1%) Y:6 (8.8%) N:62 (91.2%) 0.79 Y:33 (9.7%) N:308 (90.3%) Y:6 (9.7%) N:56 (90.3%) 1.00 Y:11 (7.3%) N:140 (92.7%) Y:28 (11.1%) N:224 (88.9%) 0.21 Y:16 (14.3%) N:96 (85.7%) Y:23 (7.9%) N:268 (92.1%) 0.052
Hypertension history Y:61 (15.1%) N:342 (84.9%) Y:52 (15.5%) N:283 (84.5%) Y:9 (13.2%) N:59 (86.8%) 0.63 Y:51 (15.0%) N:290 (85.0%) Y:10 (16.1%) N:52 (83.9%) 0.81 Y:25 (16.6%) N:126 (83.4%) Y:36 (14.3%) N:216 (85.7%) 0.54 Y:21 (18.8%) N:91 (81.2%) Y:40 (13.7%) N:251 (86.3%) 0.21
Cardiovascular history Y:19 (4.7%) N:384 (95.3%) Y:16 (4.8%) N:319 (95.2%) Y:3 (4.4%) N:65 (95.6%) 0.89 Y:16 (4.7%) N:325 (95.3%) Y:3 (4.8%) N:59 (95.2%) 0.96 Y:8 (5.3%) N:143 (94.7%) Y:11 (4.4%) N:241 (95.6%) 0.67 Y:7 (6.2%) N:105 (93.8%) Y:12 (4.1%) N:279 (95.9%) 0.37
Respiratory History Y:21 (5.2%) N:382 (94.8%) Y:20 (6.0%) N:315 (94.0%) Y:1 (1.5%) N:67 (98.5%) 0.13 Y:16 (4.7%) N:325 (95.3%) Y:5 (8.1%) N:57 (91.9%) 0.27 Y:7 (4.6%) N:144 (95.4%) Y:14 (5.6%) N:238 (94.4%) 0.69 Y:12 (10.7%) N:100 (89.3%) Y:9 (3.1%) N:282 (96.9%) 0.002
Diabetes history Y:19 (4.7%) N:384 (95.3%) Y:15 (4.5%) N:320 (95.5%) Y:4 (5.9%) N:64 (94.1%) 0.62 Y:17 (5.0%) N:324 (95.0%) Y:2 (3.2%) N:60 (96.8%) 0.55 Y:4 (2.6%) N:147 (97.4%) Y:15 (6.0%) N:237 (94.0%) 0.13 Y:6 (5.4%) N:106 (94.6%) Y:13 (4.5%) N:278 (95.5%) 0.71
Infection disease history Y:17 (4.2%) N:386 (95.8%) Y:16 (4.8%) N:319 (95.2%) Y:1 (1.5%) N:67 (98.5%) 0.22 Y:14 (4.1%) N:327 (95.9%) Y:3 (4.8%) N:59 (95.2%) 0.79 Y:5 (3.3%) N:146 (96.7%) Y:12 (4.8%) N:240 (95.2%) 0.48 Y:5 (4.5%) N:107 (95.5%) Y:12 (4.1%) N:279 (95.9%) 0.88
Allergic history Y:38 (9.4%) N:365 (90.6%) Y:33 (9.9%) N:302 (90.1%) Y:5(7.4%) N:63 ( (92.6%) 0.52 Y:34 (10.0%) N:307 (90.0%) Y:4 (6.5%) N:58 (93.5%) 0.38 Y:18 (11.9%) N:133 (88.1%) Y:20 (7.9%) N:232 (92.1%) 0.19 Y:10 (8.9%) N:102 (91.1%) Y:28 (9.6%) N:263 (90.4%) 0.83
Surgery history Y:76 (18.9%) N:327 (81.1%) Y:68 (20.3%) N:267 (79.7%) Y:8 (11.8%) N:60 (88.2%) 0.10 Y:60 (17.6%) N:281 (82.4%) Y:16 (25.8%) N:46 (74.2%) 0.13 Y:33 (21.9%) N:118 (78.1%) Y:43 (17.1%) N:209 (82.9%) 0.24 Y:18 (16.1%) N:94 (83.9%) Y:58 (19.9%) N:233 (80.1%) 0.38
  1. Drug use was evaluated by comparing groups of patients taking (Yes) or not taking the drug (No) during their hospital stay. The patients’ demographic information included age, sex, disease history and clinical symptoms