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Table 1 Literature review of COVID-19 clinical trials with antiviral drugs

From: Antiviral drugs arbidol and interferon alpha-1b contribute to reducing the severity of COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study

Antiviral drug Literature Findings Study type
Hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin Cavalcanti et al. [8] Did not improve clinical status at 15 days for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 Open-label RCT
Remdesivir Beigel et al. [11] Shorten the time to recovery for hospitalized patients Double-blind RCT
Wang et al. [14] Was not associated with time to clinical improvement Double-blind RCT
Ribavirin Tong et al. [15] Was not associated with improved negative conversion time/improved mortality rate for severe patients Retrospective study
Lopinavir–ritonavir (LPV/r) Cao et al. [16] Did not significantly accelerate clinical improvement for severe patients Open-label RCT
Interferon beta-1b + lopinavir–ritonavir + ribavirin Hung et al. [17] Alleviating symptoms and shortening the duration of viral shedding and hospital stay in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 Open-label RCT
Arbidol vs. lopinavir–ritonavir Zhu et al. [18] Arbidol monotherapy may be superior to lopinavir/ritonavir for viral clearance Retrospective study
Arbidol + lopinavir–ritonavir vs. lopinavir–ritonavir Deng et al. [19] Arbidol and LPV/r combination may be superior to LPV/r alone in elevating negative conversion rate Retrospective study
Arbidol and moxifloxacin Yu et al. [20] Reducing viral load and inflammation Retrospective study
Empirical antiviral regimens with or without arbidol Xu et al. [21] Arbidol could accelerate and enhance the process of viral clearance Retrospective study
Tocilizumab Eimer et al. [24] Did not reduce all-cause mortality but was associated with a shorter time on mechanical ventilation Retrospective study
Dexamethasone RECOVERY Collaborative group [25] Lower 28-day mortality among those who were receiving either invasive mechanical ventilation or oxygen alone but not among those receiving no respiratory support Open-label RCT
  1. We list the main findings of previous works
  2. RCT randomized controlled trial