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Table 7 Clinical and laboratory data of patients in the pregnancy group during 2015–2018

From: Prevalence and clinical correlation of hepatitis E virus antibody in the patients’ serum samples from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand during 2015–2018

Characteristics Results
Number of pregnancy cases n = 17 (17 out of 1,106; 1.54%)
Age (years) 32 (range 17–41)
Gravidity G1: n = 9 (52.9%), G2: n = 5 (29.4%), G3: n = 3 (17.6%)
Twin/Triplet pregnancy n = 3 (17.6%)
Gestational age First trimester: n = 1 (5.9%), Second trimester: n = 2 (11.8%), Third trimester: n = 14 (82.4%)
Clinical/laboratory presentations  
 Hyperbilirubinemia n = 8 (47.1%)
 Elevation of AST or ALT > 100 U/L n = 13 (76.5%)
Liver function test (All 17 cases)  
 AST (U/L) 143 (24–1,576)
 ALT (U/L) 242 (19–1,708)
 ALP (U/L) 196 (57–500)
 TB (mg/dL) 2.04 (0.3–24.3)
Diagnoses  
 Recent viral hepatitis n = 4 (23.5%); HAV (n = 1), HBV (n = 2), HEV (n = 2)
 Acute fatty liver in pregnancy n = 5 (29.4%); one was also diagnosed with syphilis
 Pre-eclampsia/HELLP n = 3 (17.6%)
 Others ATV/r induced hyperbilirubinemia (n = 1), chronic HT with UGIB (n = 1), acute/post-arrest hepatitis (n = 2), pregnancy with DFIU (n = 1)
Pregnancy and fetal complications  
 Ectopic pregnancy/DFIU n = 2 (11.8%)
 Threaten preterm labor/preterm labor n = 3 (17.6%); from maternal HAV infection (n = 1), maternal HBV infection (n = 1)
 Low infant birth weight (< 2,500 g) n = 10 (58.9%); from maternal HAV infection (n = 1), maternal HBV infection (n = 1), maternal HEV infection (n = 1)
Timing of anti-HEV antibody test Pre-partum: n = 7 (41.2%), Peri/Post-partum: n = 10 (58.9%)
Results of anti-HEV antibody test  
 Positive anti-HEV IgG antibody n = 7 (41.2%); two cases were also tested positive for anti-HEV IgM
 Positive anti-HEV IgM antibody n = 2 (11.8%)
Liver function test (HEV seropositive cases) anti-HEV IgG + /IgM- (n = 5) anti-HEV IgG + /IgM + (n = 2)
AST (U/L) 143 (24–1576) 80.5 (45–116)
ALT (U/L) 124 (19–1615) 74 (32–116)
ALP (U/L) 183 (78–473) 444 (388–500)
TB (mg/dL) 0.7 (0.3–24.3) 7.95 (4.9–11)
  1. General patient information of 17 pregnant women, including age, trimester, clinical and laboratory presentation, diagnoses, fetal complications, anti-HEV antibody test timing, and anti-HEV antibody (IgG/IgM) detection rate, were demonstrated. Continuous variables were presented in median and range. Frequencies were presented in numbers and percentages. GA (gestational age), AST (aspartate aminotransferase enzyme), ALT (alanine aminotransferase enzyme), ALP (alkaline phosphatase enzyme), TB (total bilirubin), ATV/r (atazanavir/ritonavir), HT (hypertension), UGIB (upper gastrointestinal bleeding), HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count), DFIU (dead fetus in utero), HAV (hepatitis A virus), HBV (hepatitis B virus), HEV (hepatitis E virus)