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Table 1 Patients clinical and demographic characteristics based on duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA persistence in the nasopharynx

From: Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharyngeal, blood, urine, and stool samples of patients with COVID-19: a hospital-based longitudinal study

  All patient Duration of SARS-CoV-2 RNA persistence in the nasopharynx P*
≤ 7 days after admission 7–13 days after admission ≥ 14 days after admission
Count 100 46 (46%) 43 (43%) 11 (11%)  
Age, years      0.878
 < 50 39 17 (43.6%) 18 (46.2%) 4 (10.3%)  
 ≥ 50 61 29 (47.5%) 25 (41%) 7 (11.5%)  
Gender      0.479
 Male 60 27 (45%) 28 (46.7%) 5 (8.3%)  
 Female 40 19 (47.5%) 15 (37.5%) 6 (15%)  
Marital status      0.730
 Single 16 7 (43.8%) 8 (50%) 1 (6.2%)  
 Married 84 39 (46.4%) 35 (41.7%) 10 (11.9%)  
Job      0.598
 No 32 14 (43.8%) 13 (40.6%) 5 (15.6%)  
 Yes 68 32 (47.1%) 30 (44.1%) 6 (8.8%)  
Education      0.441
 Less than diploma 63 26 (41.3%) 29 (46%) 8 (12.7%)  
 Diploma and more 37 20 (54.1%) 14 (37.8%) 3 (8.1%)  
Residency      0.195
 Urban 85 40 (47.1%) 34 (40%) 11 (12.9%)  
 Rural 15 6 (40%) 9 (60%) 0 (0%)  
Socioeconomic status      0.280
 Low 82 37 (45.1%) 35 (42.7%) 10 (12.2%)  
 Moderate to high 18 9 (50%) 8 (44.4%) 1 (0.06%)  
Underling disease      0.945
 No 50 23 (46%) 21 (42%) 6 (12%)  
 Yes 50 23 (46%) 22 (44%) 5 (10%)  
O2 saturation 93.84 ± 4.33 93.85 ± 4.03 93.88 ± 3.98 93.64 ± 6.80 0.986
Hospital treatment plana      0.477
 Hydroxychloroquine 5 2 (40%) 2 (40%) 1 (20%)  
 Local treatment b 62 32 (51.6%) 25 (40.3%) 5 (8.1%)  
 Anti-viral c 18 5 (27.8%) 11 (61.1%) 2 (11.1%)  
 Interferon 15 7 (46.7%) 5 (33.3%) 3 (20%)  
COVID-19 symptoms      
Dyspnea      0.122
 No 44 18 (40.9%) 18 (40.9%) 8 (18.2%)  
 Yes 56 28 (50%) 25 (44.6%) 3 (5.4%)  
Sore throat      0.586
 No 78 38 (48.7%) 32 (41%) 8 (10.3%)  
 Yes 22 8 (36.4%) 11 (50%) 3 (13.6%)  
Muscular pain      0.152
 No 82 37 (45.1%) 38 (46.3%) 7 (8.5%)  
 Yes 18 9 (50%) 5 (27.8%) 4 (22.2%)  
Headache      0.470
 No 76 34 (44.7%) 32 (42.1%) 10 (13.2%)  
 Yes 24 12 (50%) 11 (45.8%) 1 (4.2%)  
Diarrhea      0.795
 No 84 38 (45.2%) 36 (42.9%) 10 (11.9%)  
 Yes 16 8 (50%) 7 (43.8%) 1 (6.2%)  
Fever      0.991
 No 19 9 (47.4%) 8 (42.1%) 2 (10.5%)  
 Yes 81 37 (45.7%) 35 (43.2%) 9 (11.1%)  
Cough      0.249
 No 30 14 (46.7%) 15 (50%) 1 (3.3%)  
 Yes 70 32 (45.7%) 28 (40%) 10 (14.3%)  
Weakness      0.550
 No 93 43 (46.2%) 39 (41.9%) 11 (11.8%)  
 Yes 7 3 (42.9%) 4 (57.1%) 0 (0%)  
Nausea and vomiting      0.145
 No 79 40 (50.6%) 32 (40.5%) 7 (8.9%)  
 Yes 21 6 (28.6%) 11 (52.4%) 4 (19%)  
Chills      0.886
 No 21 9 (42.9%) 10 (47.6%) 2 (9.5%)  
 Yes 79 37 (46.8%) 33 (41.8%) 9 (11.4%)  
Inflammatory markers      
 WBC, cell/mL 7.41 ± 3.95 7.15 ± 3.42 7.96 ± 4.63 6.37 ± 3.05 0.415
 ESR, mm/h 53.38 ± 28.11 50.78 ± 29.64 55.88 ± 26.42 54.45 ± 29.66 0.692
CRP, mg/L      
 < 12 24 11 (23.9%) 11 (25.6%) 2 (18.2%) 0.473
 12–20 16 6 (13%) 9 (20.9%) 4 (36.4%)  
 > 20 57 29 (63%) 23 (53.5%) 5 (45.5%)  
Ct value(mean ± SD) 29.67 ± 4.69 29.98 ± 4.45 29.33 ± 5.25 29.73 ± 3.47 0.809
Nasopharyngeal viral load at admission, n (%)      0.464
 High (Ct < 20) 1 0 (0%) 1 (100%) 0 (0%)  
 Medium (Ct 20–29.9) 47 19 (40.4%) 22 (46.8%) 6 (12.8%)  
 Low (Ct ≥ 30) 52 27 (51.9%) 20 (38.5%) 5 (9.6%)  
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD
  2. COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019, SARS-CoV-2 RNA sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirous2, WBC Wight blood cells, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, Ct value cycle threshold value
  3. *Statistical significance based on the Chi-square or ANOVA test, Pearson correlation coefficient
  4. aAll of the patients received corticosteroids
  5. bIncluding diphenhydramine, acetaminophen, zinc, vitamin C, famotidine
  6. cIncluding lopinavir, Sovodak (Sofosbuvir at 400 mg and daclatasvir at 60 mg, Remdesivir)