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Table 1 Summarizes frequency of signs and symptoms by means of median and interquartile range (IQR) recorded for COVID-19 patients for studies included in the review

From: A comprehensive review on clinical and mechanistic pathophysiological aspects of COVID-19 Malady: How far have we come?

Organ system Symptom Frequency (%) Studies reported
Median IQR
Cerebrovascular Headache 8.2% 7.1–16.0 7
  Confusion 9.1% 1
  Dizziness 9.4% 1
Eye* 0
Ear, Nose, Throat Nasal Congestion/ Rhinorhea 16.7% 6.9–61.5 4
  Sore throat 11.1% 5.9–16.5 4
  Sputum Production 30.2% 10.0–39.7 4
  Tonsil swelling 2.0%   
Chest/Pulmonary Cough 71.4% 46.7–73.1 12
  Shortness of breath 36.7% 19.0–56.5 11
  Hemoptysis 4.9% 1.0–5.1 4
  Chest pain 2.0% 1
  Chest distress 23.8% 1
Gastrointestinal Loss of appetite 39.9% 12.2–49.5 3
  Nausea/ Vomiting 12.7% 4.0–19.5 6
  Diarrhea 8.0% 3.2–11.8 10
  Abdominal pain 4.4% 4.3–5.8 3
Musculoskeletal Fatigue 66.9% 49.9–73.6 4
  Myalgia/Arthralgia 23.1% 14.6–33.5 9
Dermatological Rash 0.2%   1
*Eye None of the original searches contained data on ocular signs and symptoms. A cohort [57], however, focused on ocular signs and symptoms revealed: eye pain (19.4%), photophobia (13.9%), flashes or floaters (11.8%), blurring of vision (11.1%), and eye redness (10.4%)    
Disease severity classification Features (as per CDC guidelines)    
Asymptomatic/presymptomatic Patients who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 but have no symptoms suggestive for SARS-cov-2 infection    
Mild Illness Patients having any of the various signs or symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection but do not have shortness of breath, dyspnea or abnormal chest imaging    
Moderate Illness Individuals who show signs of lower respiratory disease on clinical assessment or imaging and have an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of ≥ 94% on room air at sea level    
Severe Illness Individuals with SpO2 < 94% on room air at sea level, a ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) < 300 mm Hg, respiratory frequency > 30 breaths/min, or lung infiltrates > 50%    
Critical Illness Individuals having respiratory failure, septic shock, and/or multiple organ dysfunction    
  1. The most common manifestation was cough, followed by fatigue. Shortness of breath, chest distress and chest pain were most prevalent among cases exhibiting severe symptoms. There were no ocular symptoms recorded for any of the studies included in this review