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Fig. 2 | Virology Journal

Fig. 2

From: A comprehensive review on clinical and mechanistic pathophysiological aspects of COVID-19 Malady: How far have we come?

Fig. 2

source of cytokines, releasing interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and several other chemokines that can activate macrophages, attract neutrophils cause homing of monocytes and macrophages to sites of inflammation. After generating initial inflammatory response to alveolar damage, monocytes and macrophages are believed to contribute to production of cytokines. Thus, SARS-CoV triggers macrophages to increase production of certain chemokines (for example, MIP1α), and TNF and interleukin-6. This further activates neutrophils and macrophages which infiltrate the alveoli and cause tissue destruction [81]. (Image created with

SARS-CoV-2 enters alveolar cells via ACE2 receptor. Initially, epithelial cells infected by SARS viruses act as a

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