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Table 1 Clinical conditions of the patients at admission (Group 1: Early treatment with FPV and HQ, Group 2: Late treatment with FPV and HQ, Group 3: Treatment with only HQ)

From: Benefits of treatment with favipiravir in hospitalized patients for COVID-19: a retrospective observational case–control study

  Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 p-value
Symptoms before admission to hospital (mean [SD] days) 4.73 (2.447) 3.73(2.141) 2.667 (2.628) NS
Drugs use  
 Anti-hypertensive 20 (41.7%) 17 (35.4%) 20 (41.7%) NS
 Anti-diabetic 19 (39.6%) 13 (27.1%) 14 (29.2%) NS
Symptoms in admission to hospital
 Fatigue 25(52.1%) 35(72.9%) 22 (45.8%) NS
 Fever 19 (39.5) 7 (%14.5) 7 (%14.5) NS
 Cough 30(62.5%) 39 (81.2%) 20 (41.7%) NS
 Shortness of breath 28 (58.3%) 24 (50.0%) 6 (12.5%) NS
 Nasal congestion 2 (4.2%) 2 (4.2%) 1 (2.1%) NS
 Sore throat 9 (18.8%) 10 (20.8%) 8 (16.7%) NS
 Nausea and vomiting 4 (8.3%) 13 (27.1%)a 5 (10.4%)a 0.020a
 Headache 16b (33.3%) 19c (39.6%) 4b,c (8.3%) 0.001b
0.001c
 Anosmia 4(8.3%) 1(2.1%) 0 (0.0%) NS
 Diarrhea 5(10.4%) 6 (12.5%) 5 (10.4%) NS
FPV received after symptoms onset (mean [SD] days) 4.73(2.447) 8.60 (3.654)    < 0.001
  1. Statistically significant values are presented in bold. Superscript letters define the significant p-values of pairwise comparisons. 
  2. FPV Favipiravir; NS: non-significant
  3. a denotes the comparison of patients with nausea and vomiting in Group 2 vs. Group 3
  4. b denotes the comparison of patients with headache in Group 1 vs. Group 3
  5. c denotes the comparison of patients with headache in Group 2 vs. Group 3