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Table 1 Hepatitis viruses have developed multiple strategies to disrupt the immune response by hijacking the SOCS system

From: The role of SOCS proteins in the development of virus- induced hepatocellular carcinoma

Virus SOCS protein In vivo or In vitro Viral proteins Mechanism References
HCV SOCS1/3 Hep-G2 cell HCV core protein Inhibit IFN-α induced expression of 2′,5′-OAS and MxA [40]
SOCS3 patients HCV genotype 1 Reduce the biological response to IFN-α [43]
SOCS1 PBMC HCV core protein Dysregulate T- and B-cell signalling [44,45,46,47]
SOCS Myeloid DCs HCV genotype 3 Diminish capacity to present antigen [49]
SOCS3/7 Huh-7 HCV genotype 3 Downregulation of IRS1 and IRS2 [52,53,54]
HBV SOCS3 Huh-7 and liver specimens from HBV-infected patients adenoviral AdHBV (genotype A) Dysregulate STAT/SOCS-signalling [58]
SOCS1 HepG2.2.15 cells and PBMC HBV antigen, HBeAg Promote inflammatory cytokine production [60]
SOCS1 plasmacytoid dendritic cells HBsAg Inhibition of the IFN-α production [61]
SOCS1/3 HBV transgenic mice CTP-HBcAg18-27-tapasin enhance T cell immune responses [62,63,64]
  1. Viral proteins disrupt the host’s immune response by hijacking different SOCS proteins in vivo or in vitro.