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Table 1 HIV-infected and uninfected study participants

From: Role of antenatal plasma cytomegalovirus DNA levels on pregnancy outcome and HIV-1 vertical transmission among mothers in the University of Zimbabwe birth cohort study (UZBCS)

Variables Median (1st quartile-3rd quartile); min–max Stratifications; HIV status and CMV-DNAemia; N = 177
Maternal HIV status   HIV-uninfected mothers, N = 46 HIV-infected mothers including vertical transmitters, N = 131
CMV-DNAemia   CMV aviremic, N = 36 CMV viremic, N = 10 CMV aviremic, N = 99 CMV viremic, N = 32
CMV viremic (detectable) Yes N/A 10(21.7%) N/A 32(24.4%)
  No 36 (78.3%) N/A 99(75.6%) N/A
CMV-DNA (copies/mL)   N/A 178 (126–344); 82–30,279 N/A 345 (207–500); 30–3169 
Maternal age (years)   24.4 (21.7–29.8); 18.1–41.7 26.3 (22.5–34.1); 17.6–40.1 29.5 (25.2–34.2); 18.4-.43.7 28.3 (23.3–32.6); 18.3–41.7*
Mid upper arm circumference (cm)   28.5 [26,27,28,29,30]; 20–42 27 (25.3–28.8); 23–35.5 28 [26,27,28,29,30]; 21–39 27.3 [25,26,27,28,29,30]; 22–35
HIV-RNA (copies per mL)   N/A N/A 195 (20–10784.5); 0–257539** 1665 (20–81, 150); 0–614706
CD4 count cells/µL   N/A N/A 404.5 (277–517); 55–966*  341 (122–470); 26–1153
Pregnancy outcomes (N = 180 infants, including 3 sets of twins)   CMV aviremic mother, N = 36 CMV viremic mother, N = 10 CMV aviremic mother, N = 101 CMV viremic mother, N = 33
Delivery < 37 weeks gestational age Yes 7 (19.4%) 1 (10%) 22 (21.8%) 12 (36.4%)
  No 29 (80.6%) 9 (90%) 79 (78.2%) 21 (63.6%)
Birth weight (g)   3075 (2737.5–3325); 1800–3885 3000 (2925–3037.5); 2600–3900 2910 (2600–3250); 1300–4230 2800 (2500–3300); 1000–3600
Birth weight z score (WHO Growth Reference 2016)   − 0.6 (− 1.3-(-)0.0); − 3.8–1.1 − 0.7 (− 0.9-(-)0.7); − 1.7–1.1 − 0.9 (− 1.7-(-)0.2); − 5.5–1.5 − 1.2 (1.9-(-)0.1); − 6.8–0.5
Birth length (cm)   49(48–51); 42–58 51 (49.3–52); 47–56 49.(48–51*); 36–55*** 49 (48–50); 27–56 *
Birth length z score (WHO Growth Reference 2016)   − 0.1 (− 0.7–0.6); − 4.2–4.8 0.8 (− 0.0–1.5); − 1.5–3.7 − 0.1 (1.0–0.6); − 7.3–2.7 *** − 0.5 (− 1.0–0.5); − 12.1–3.7 *
Vertical transmission by 6 months of age Yes N/A N/A 5 (5.2%) †††† 6 (18.2%)*
  No N/A N/A 92 (94.8%) †††† 27 (81.8%)
  1. Pregnant women characteristics, stratified by HIV status and CMV-DNAemia, 4 groups. Data are expressed as N (%) or median (IQR); min–max unless stated otherwise. For calculation of vertical transmissions only infants that survived the first 6 months of life were included; exclusions due to death are marked with one “†” for each deceased infant. P-values to compare groups were calculated using the Kruskal Wallis test, Mann–Whitney U test or Fisher’s exact test where appropriate. Missing data are indicated in the following manner: number of * = number of missing data points. Maternal age (years), Vertical transmission by 6 months of age both p values = 0.03, otherwise all the other p values are > 0.1
  2. BMI: body mass index, CMV: cytomegalovirus, HIV: human immunodeficiency virus, WHO: world health organization, N/A: not applicable
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