Razavi-Shearer D, et al. Global prevalence, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in 2016: a modelling study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;3:383–403.
Liang X, Bi S, Yang W, Wang L, Cui G, Cui F, Zhang Y, Liu J, Gong X, Chen Y, et al. Reprint of: epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China—declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination. Vaccine. 2013;31(Suppl 9):J21-28.
Yan YP, Su HX, Ji ZH, Shao ZJ, Pu ZS. Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in China: current status and challenges. J Clin Transl Hepatol. 2014;2(1):15–22.
Xia GL, Liu CB, Cao HL, Bi SL, Zhan MY, Su CA, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in the general Chinese population. Results from a nationwide cross-sectional seroepidemiologic study of hepatitis A, B, C, D and E virus infections in China, 1992. Int Hepatol Commun. 1996;5:62–73.
Liang X, Bi S, Yang W, Wang L, Cui G, Cui F, Zhang Y, Liu J, Gong X, Chen Y, Wang F, Zheng H, Wang F, Guo J, Jia Z, Ma J, Wang H, Luo H, Li L, Jin S, Hadler SC, Wang Y. Epidemiological serosurvey of hepatitis B in China—declining HBV prevalence due to hepatitis B vaccination. Vaccine. 2009;27(47):6550–7.
Liu Z, Yang Q, Shi O, Ye W, Chen X, Zhang T. The epidemiology of hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections in China from 2004 to 2014: an observational population-based study. J Viral Hepat. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvh.12938.
Liu A, Le A, Zhang J, Wong C, Wong C, Henry L, Nguyen MH. Increasing co-morbidities in chronic hepatitis B patients: experience in primary care and referral practices during 2000–2015. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2018;9(3):141.
Du Y, Zhang S, Hu M, Wang Q, Liu N, Shen H, Zhang Y, Yan D, Zhang M. Association between hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study from 3 million population aged 20 to 49 years in rural China. Medicine. 2019;98(5):e14262.
Kim SE, Jang ES, Ki M, Gwak GY, Kim KA, Kim GA, Kim DY, Kim DJ, Kim MW, Kim YS, et al. Chronic hepatitis B infection is significantly associated with chronic kidney disease: a population-based, matched case-control study. J Korean Med Sci. 2018;33(42):e264.
Cai QC, Zhao SQ, Shi TD, Ren H. Relationship between hepatitis B virus infection and chronic kidney disease in Asian populations: a meta-analysis. Ren Fail. 2016;38(10):1581–8.
Ning L, Lin W, Hu X, Fan R, Liang X, Wu Y, Shen S, Yu R, Sun J, Hou J. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in patients with chronic hepatitis B: a cross-sectional survey. J Viral Hepat. 2017;24(11):1043–51.
Wong GL, Seto WK, Wong VW, Yuen MF, Chan HL. Review article: long-term safety of oral anti-viral treatment for chronic hepatitis B. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;47(6):730–7.
Lee YS, Kim BK, Lee HJ, Dan J. Pathologic femoral neck fracture due to fanconi syndrome induced by adefovir dipivoxil therapy for hepatitis B. Clin Orthop Surg. 2016;8(2):232–6.
Wu C, Zhang H, Qian Y, Wang L, Gu X, Dai Z. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and renal Fanconi syndrome induced by low-dose adefovir dipivoxil: a case report and literature review suggesting ethnic predisposition. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2013;38(4):321–6.
Eguchi H, Tsuruta M, Tani J, Kuwahara R, Hiromatsu Y. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia due to drug-induced Fanconi’s syndrome associated with adefovir dipivoxil treatment for hepatitis B. Intern Med. 2014;53(3):233–7.
Kim YJ, Cho HC, Sinn DH, Gwak GY, Choi MS, Koh KC, Paik SW, Yoo BC, Lee JH. Frequency and risk factors of renal impairment during long-term adefovir dipivoxil treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;27:306–12.
Wong GL, Chan HL, Tse YK, Yip TC, Lam KL, Lui GC, Szeto CC, Wong VW. Chronic kidney disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis B on tenofovir, entecavir, or no treatment. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2018;48:984–92.
Yang SG, Wang B, Chen P, Yu CB, Deng M, Yao J, Zhu CX, Ren JJ, Wu W, Ju B, et al. Effectiveness of HBV vaccination in infants and prediction of HBV prevalence trend under new vaccination plan: findings of a large-scale investigation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(10):e47808.
Cui Y, Jia J. Update on epidemiology of hepatitis B and C in China. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;28(Suppl 1):7–10.
World Health Organization. Global Burden of Disease 2000. WHO. https://www.who.int/healthinfo/paper50.pdf?ua=1. Data last accessed October 2002.
Han Y, Zeng A, Liao H, Liu Y, Chen Y, Ding H. The efficacy and safety comparison between tenofovir and entecavir in treatment of chronic hepatitis B and HBV related cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;42:168–75.
Wang YJ, Yang L, Zuo JP. Recent developments in antivirals against hepatitis B virus. Virus Res. 2016;213:205–13.
Liu SH, Seto WK, Lai CL, Yuen MF. Hepatitis B: treatment choice and monitoring for response and resistance. Exp Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;10(6):697–707.
Zoulim F, Durantel D, Deny P. Management and prevention of drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int. 2009;29(Suppl 1):108–15.
Guo X, Wu J, Wei F, Ouyang Y, Li Q, Liu K, Wang Y, Zhang Y, Chen D. Trends in hepatitis B virus resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide analogues in North China from 2009 to 2016: a retrospective study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018;52(2):201–9.
Feng B, Wei L, Chen M, et al. Dynamic changes of hepatitis B virus polymerase gene including YMDD motif in lamivudine-treated patients with chronic hepatitis B. Microbiol Res. 2008;163(4):487–92.
Vutien P, Trinh HN, Garcia RT, et al. Mutations in HBV DNA polymerase associated with nucleos(t)ide resistance are rare in treatment-naive patients. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(8):1363–70.
Maggi P, Montinaro V, Leone A, Fasano M, Volpe A, Bellacosa C, Grattagliano V, Coladonato L, Lapadula G, Santantonio T, et al. Bone and kidney toxicity induced by nucleotide analogues in patients affected by HBV-related chronic hepatitis: a longitudinal study. J Antimicrob Chem. 2015;70(4):1150–4.
Hemmelgarn BR, Manns BJ, Lloyd A, James MT, Klarenbach S, Quinn RR, Wiebe N, Tonelli M. Relation between kidney function, proteinuria, and adverse outcomes. JAMA. 2010;303(5):423–9.
Park JI, Baek H, Kim BR, Jung HH. Comparison of urine dipstick and albumin:creatinine ratio for chronic kidney disease screening: A population-based study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(2):e0171106.
Zhang L, Wang F, Wang L, Wang W, Liu B, Liu J, Chen M, He Q, Liao Y, Yu X, et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in China: a cross-sectional survey. Lancet (Lond, Engl). 2012;379(9818):815–22.
Hamrahian SM, Falkner B. Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;956:307–25.
Romagnani P, Remuzzi G, Glassock R, Levin A, Jager KJ, Tonelli M, Massy Z, Wanner C, Anders HJ. Chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017;3:17088.
Wei Z, He JW, Fu WZ, Zhang ZL. Osteomalacia induced by long-term low-dose adefovir dipivoxil: Clinical characteristics and genetic predictors. Bone. 2016;93:97–103.
Casado JL. Renal and bone toxicity with the use of tenofovir: understanding at the end. AIDS Rev. 2016;18(2):59–68.
Tsai JZ, Chen CJ, Settu K, Lin YF, Chen CL, Liu JT. Screen-printed carbon electrode-based electrochemical immunosensor for rapid detection of microalbuminuria. Biosens Bioelectron. 2016;77:1175–82.
Chatzikyrkou C, Menne J, Izzo J, et al. Predictors for the development of microalbuminuria and interaction with renal function[J]. J Hypertens. 2017;35(12):2501–9.
Wong GL, Wong VW, Yuen BW, Tse YK, Luk HW, Yip TC, Hui VW, Liang LY, Lui GC, Chan HL. An aging population of chronic hepatitis B with increasing co-morbidities—a territory-wide study from 2000 to 2017. Hepatology (Baltimore, MD). 2019;71:444–55.
Nguyen MH, Lim JK, Burak Ozbay A, Fraysse J, Liou I, Meyer N, Dusheiko G, Gordon SC. Advancing age and comorbidity in a us insured population-based cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis B. Hepatology (Baltimore, MD). 2019;69(3):959–73.