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Table 1 Oncogenic viruses, associated malignancies and oncogenes

From: Designer nucleases to treat malignant cancers driven by viral oncogenes

Etiological agent Malignancies and other disorders Targeted and potential oncogenes Review reference
HPV Cervical cancer
Oropharyngeal cancer
Vagina cancer
Penile cancer
Anal cancer
Vulvar cancer
E6a
E7a
[12, 13]
HTLV-1 Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL)
HTLV-1 associated
myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)
HBZ RNA
HBZ protein
[14]
EBV
(HHV-4)
Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL)
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL)
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)
NK/T cell lymphoma
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD)
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)
Gastric carcinoma (GC)
Latent coding
 EBNA1a
 EBNA2
 EBNA3A
 EBNA3C
 LMP1a
 LMP2Aa
Latent non-coding
 EBERs
 EBV miRNAsa
[15, 16]
KSHV
(HHV-8)
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL)
Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD)
Latent coding
 LANAa
 Kaposin
 Viral cyclin (vCyclin)
 Viral FLIP (vFLIP)
Latent non-coding
 K12-miRNAsa
[17, 18]
MCPyV Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) Large antigen (LT)a
Small antigen (sT)a
[19]
  1. Etiological agents with a list of their known associated cancers and other related disorders are shown. The genes that are the main oncogenic drivers of these cancers are highlighted as well as other potential targets for nuclease inactivation
  2. aStudies inactivating the oncogene with designer nucleases