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Table 2 Anti-influenza mechanisms of γδ T cells in the respiratory tract

From: Role of γδ T cells in controlling viral infections with a focus on influenza virus: implications for designing novel therapeutic approaches

Study Host γδ subsets Anti-influenza mechanism
Sant et al. [61] Human γδ T cells along with target IAV-infected THP-1 cells Vγ9Vδ2 Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-mediated IFN-γ-dependent anti-influenza activity
Killing of target cells by Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with an equivalent efficiency to CD8+ T cells and NK cells
Schwaiger et al. [105] Pigs, as human-like IAV infection models pan γδ Anti-IAV activity mediated by γδ T cells in a perforin-dependent cytotoxic pathway
An increase in the percentage of CD8 expressing γδ T cells in route of viral entry
Xi-zhi et al. [14] A neonatal mouse model pan γδ IL-17A-producing γδ T cell-mediated increased lung epithelial cell-derived IL-33
IL-33-mediated lung repair through the infiltration of group 2 innate lymphoid cells and regulatory T cells to the lung
Palomino et al. [106] C57BL/6 mice pan γδ Recruitment of γδ T cells to the site of infection in a CXCR3 receptor-dependent fashion
IL-17A-producing γδ T cell-mediated enhanced protective cells (neutrophils and NK cells) recruitment to the tracheal mucosa
Goldberg et al. [108] Mx1-congenic C57BL/6 mice models pan γδ KD-expanded γδ T cell-mediated improved lung barrier integrity
Viral clearance during lethal influenza infection in airway epithelium by γδ T cells expressing IL-17
Carding et al. [13] C57B1/6 J mice Vγ4+
Vγ2+/Vγ1+
A possible role of γδ T cells in responding to HSP+ cells and resolving inflammatory process upon influenza infection
Ivanov et al. [109] IL-22−/− and wild type mice pan γδ IL-22-producing γδ T cell- dependent limited lung inflammation and increased immunity to bacterial infection at early phase of IAV infection
Li et al. [9] Human γδ T cells along with IAV-infected A549 cells Vγ9Vδ2 NKG2D-induced Vγ9Vδ2 T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in perforin/granzyme B, TRAIL, and Fas-FasL dependent pathways
Qin et al. [11] Human PBMC infected with IAV pan γδ CCR5-mediated regulation of Vγ9Vδ2 T cell trafficking to virus-infected site by binding to its ligands secreted from infected cells upon IAV infections
Dong et al. [60] TCR-δ−/− and wild type mice pan γδ Unprocessed whole HA molecule-restricted activation of γδ T cells
IFN-γ-mediated antiviral immunity against IAV infection provided by HA-induced γδ T cells
γδ T cell-induced bystander activation of other immune cells by secretion of immunomodulatory cytokines
Stervbo et al. [118] Human donors pan γδ Detrimental effects of age and smoking on LAIV-induced γδ T cell responses
Horvath et al. [119]
Moser et al. [110] IL-21R KO mice, C57BL/6, and CD45.1 mice pan γδ Modulatory role of IL-21 and serpinb1a in the control of negative effects of overstimulation of IL-17-producing γδ T cells in the respiratory tract after IAV infection
Zhao et al. [111] Wild type and serpinB1−/− mice
  1. IAV, influenza A virus; THP-1 cells, a human monocyte cell line; NK cells, natural killer cells; MX1, myxovirus protein 1; KD, ketogenic diet; HSP, heat shock protein; A549 cells, human lung alveolar epithelial cells; HA, hemagglutinin; LAIV, live-attenuated influenza vaccine