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Table 3 Overview of viruses used in the current study

From: In vitro virucidal activity of Echinaforce®, an Echinacea purpurea preparation, against coronaviruses, including common cold coronavirus 229E and SARS-CoV-2

Name Strain Propagated in Mediuma Procured from
HCoV 229E Huh-7, 33 °C DMEM+ 5%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) Prof. Volker Thiel, University of Bern, Switzerland [24, 25]
MERS-CoV EMC Vero, 37 °C DMEM+ 2%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) Prof. Volker Thiel, University of Bern, Switzerland [24, 25]
SARS-CoV Frankfurt-1 Vero, 37 °C DMEM+ 2%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) Prof. Volker Thiel, University of Bern, Switzerland [24, 25]
SARS-CoV-2 BetaCoV/France/IDF0372/2020 Vero E6, 37 °C DMEM+ 2%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) Institute Pasteur, Paris, France via EVAg, European Virus Archive.
Mouse parvovirus MVM Prototype, ATCC-1346 A9, 37 °C DMEM+ 2%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses, UK
Yellow Fever virus 17D, NCPV-0507 Vero, 37 °C DMEM+ 2%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses, UK
Vaccinia virus Elstree (Lister Vaccine), ATCC-VR-1549 Vero, 37 °C DMEM+ 2%FBS, 2 mM Glutamine, non-essential amino acids, Pen/strep, HEPES (Biochrom, Germany) The National Collection of Pathogenic Viruses, UK
  1. All viruses were cultured without CO2 in non-vented flasks, 24 well-, or 96 well-plates covered with sealing foil (Biorad, microseal B-film, MSB 1001) for the duration of experiments
  2. aDulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), Penicillin/Streptomycin (Pen/Strep, 100 U/mL)
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