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Fig. 4 | Virology Journal

Fig. 4

From: In vitro virucidal activity of Echinaforce®, an Echinacea purpurea preparation, against coronaviruses, including common cold coronavirus 229E and SARS-CoV-2

Fig. 4

Enveloped RNA viruses are inactivated by direct treatment with Echinaforce. a MERS-CoV is highly sensitive to direct Echinaforce treatment, with significant reduction in viral titer observed at 10 μg/ml and complete inactivation at 50 μg/ml. *p = 0.0144 (compared to 0 μg/ml) or p = 0.0394 (compared to 1 μg/ml) (b) SARS-CoV-1 is completely inactivated at the highest concentration with a slight but significant reduction in viral titer after exposure to 10 μg/ml. *p < 0.0001. c SARS-CoV-2 was also completely inactivated after treatment with 50 μg/ml. *p = 0.0452. d Exposure to 50 μg/ml Echinaforce leads to complete inactivation of yellow fever virus (YFV) *p = 0.0067. e Vaccinia virus and (f) mouse parvovirus (MVM) were not sensitive to Echinaforce. No effect was observed on cell viability (right y-axis, (a), (b), (c) and (d)). Data shown are representative of two independent experiments (mean ± sd)

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