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Table 4 Risk factors for the development of viral infection. Patient-Level: (at least one positive PCR-result)

From: Co-infections of human herpesviruses (CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7 and EBV) in non-transplant acute leukemia patients undergoing chemotherapy

Risk Factors
(Univariate analysis)
CMV infectionEBV infectionHHV-6 infectionHHV7- infection
Patients DataNegative
N = 49 (%)
Positive
N = 46 (%)
PNegative
N = 87 (%)
Positive
N = 8 (%)
PNegative
N = 70 (%)
Positive
N = 25 (%)
PNegative
N = 81(%)
Positive
N = 14 (%)
P
GenderMale31 (49.2)32 (50.8)0.51656 (88.9)7 (11.1)0.26044 (69.9)19 (30.1)0.23354 (58.7)9 (14.3)0.862
Female18 (56.2)14 (43.8) 31 (96.9)1 (3.1) 26 (81.2)6 (18.8) 27 (84.4)5 (15.6) 
Age groups (years)< 1626 (53.1)23 (46.9)0.76544 (89.8)5 (10.2)0.51835 (71.4)14 (28.6)0.60640 (81.6)9 (18.4)0.303
≥ 1623 (50)23 (50) 43 (93.5)3 (6.5) 35 (76.1)11 (23.9) 41 (89.1)5 (10.9) 
Type of leukemiaAML18 (41.9)25 (58.1)0.08541 (95.3)2 (4.7)0.28632 (74.4)11 (25.6)0.88237 (86)6 (14)0.845
ALL31 (59.6)21 (40.4) 46 (88.5)6 (11.5) 38 (73.1)14 (26.9) 44 (84.6)8 (15.4) 
Response to inductionNon-complete remission11 (44)14 (56)0.37723 (92)2 (8)0.93020 (80)5 (20)0.40322 (88)3 (12)0.653
Complete remission38 (54.3)32 (45.7) 64 (91.4)6 (8.6) 50 (71.4)20 (28.6) 59 (84.3)11 (15.7) 
Disease status (at the last follow-up)Remission33 (61.1)21 (38.9)0.03351 (94.5)3 (5.5)0.24845 (83.3)9 (16.7)0.01448 (88.8)6 (11.2)0.253
Relapse/Refractory16 (39)25 (61) 36 (87.8)5 (12.2) 25 (61)16 (39) 33 (80.5)8 (19.5) 
SalvageNo received39 (59.1)27 (31.9)0.02762 (93.9)4 (6.1)0.21154 (81.8)12 (18.2)0.00759 (89.4)7 (10.6)0.087
Received10 (34.5)19 (65.5) 25 (86.2)4 (13.8) 16 (55.2)13 (44.8) 22 (75.9)7 (24.1) 
OutcomeDeath7 (41.2)10 (58.8)0.34415 (88.2)2 (11.8)0.63112 (70.6)5 (29.4)0.74915 (88.2)2 (11.8)0.703
Alive42 (53.8)36 (46.2) 72 (92.3)6 (7.7) 58 (74.4)20 (25.6) 66 (84.6)12 (15.4) 
VirusCMV infection43 (93.5)3 (6.5)0.71627 (58.7)19 (41.3)0.00138 (82.6)8 (17.4)0.479
EBV infection5 (62.5)3 (37.5)0.5185 (62.5)3 (37.5)0.4305 (62.5)3 (37.5)0.092
HHV-6 infection6 (24)19 (76)0.00122 (88)3 (12)0.43022 (88)3 (12)0.754
HHV-7 infection6 (42.8)8 (57.2)0.47911 (78.6)3 (21.4)0.09211 (78.6)3 (21.4)0.754
Multivariate analysis for viral infectionFactorsCoefficient (B)Odds Ratio (OR)95% Confidence IntervalP 
CMV infectionHHV-6 infection1.4364.2051.450–12.1980.008 
HHV-6 infectionSalvage received1.0602.8871.048–7.9550.040 
CMV infection1.4504.2651.474–12.3450.007 
  1. Univariate logistic regression analysis of risk factors for HHVs (EBV, CMV, HHV-6 and HHV-7) infections were performed, showing the association between viral infections and patient’s demographic and clinical characteristics using the Chi-square (X2) test or Fisher’s exact test. Statistically significant association was considered if p-value < 0.05 after multivariate analysis (significant p are bolded)
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