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Table 3 Assessment of high risks associated with super HEV infection among 202 acute sporadic HEV inpatients from east-coast area, Zhejiang, China, 2004–2017

From: Acute sporadic hepatitis E in the Zhejiang coastal area of China: a 14-year hospital-based surveillance study

Valuable Single HEV infection (n = 141) Super HEV infection (n = 61) OR (95% CI) P value
Demographic characteristics
 Age range (years) 23–83 26–82 /  
 Mean age ± SD (years) 52.42 ± 13.19 48.64 ± 12.84 / 0.06d
 Sex ratio (male/female) 3.55 (110/31) 4.55 (50/11) 0.781 (0.363–1.677) 0.53a
 Smoker (%, n) 30.50% (43/141) 31.15 (19/61) 1.031 (0.538–1.974) 0.93a
 Alcohol user (%, n) 38.30% (54/141) 39.34% (24/61) 1.045 (0.565–1.934) 0.89a
 History of blood transfusion (%, n) 3.55% (5/141) 6.56% (4/61) 1.909 (0.495–7.368) 0.46b
 Hepatoxic medication (%, n) 4.26% (6/141) 31.15% (19/61) 10.179 (3.816–27.147) < 0.001a
 Chronic liver diseases (%, n) 19.15% (27/141) 40.98% (25/61) 2.932 (1.515–5.767) < 0.001a
 Liver cirrhosis 2.13% (3/141) 18.03% (11/61) 10.120 (2.712–37.768) < 0.001b
 Fatty liver disease 5.67% (8/141) 6.56% (4/61) 1.167 (0.338–4.030) 0.76b
 Alcoholic liver disease 12.06% (17/141) 19.67% (12/61) 1.786 (0.795–4.014) 0.16a
 Hepatic carcinoma 0.71% (1/141) 4.92% (3/61) 7.241 (0.738–72.064) 0.08b
 Drug-induced hepatitis 1.42% (2/141) 0% (0/61) / 1.00b
 Chronic nonliver comorbidities (%, n)    / 0.87c
  No comorbidities 56.74% (80/141) 62.30% (38/61) /  
 1 comorbidity 26.24% (37/141) 22.95% (14/61) /  
 2 comorbidities 11.35% (16/141) 8.20% (5/61) /  
  ≥ 3 comorbidities 5.67% (8/141) 6.56% (4/61) /  
Disease progression
 Median days from onset to consultation 6 (0–39) 5 (0–24) / 0.06c
 Median days from onset to admission 7 (2–40) 7 (1–49) / 0.51c
 Median days from onset to confirmation 11 (4–45) 11 (4–54) / 0.83c
 Median days from onset to deterioration 9 (0–32) 7 (0–35) / 0.56c
 Median days from onset to discharge 29 (9–111) 33 (10–73) / 0.11c
 Days hospitalized 21 (5–108) 24 (6–64) / 0.15c
  1. Notes: SD standard deviation; a = Chi-square test; b = Fisher test; c = Non-parametric test; and d = T test in P value column; “/” denotes not available