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Table 2 Assessment of high risks associated with disease severity among 202 acute sporadic HEV inpatients from the east- coast area of Zhejiang Province, China, 2004–2017

From: Acute sporadic hepatitis E in the Zhejiang coastal area of China: a 14-year hospital-based surveillance study

Valuable Non-severe cases (n = 100) Severe cases (n = 102) OR (95% CI) P value
Demographic characteristics
 Age range (years) 23–80 24–83 /  
 Mean age ± SD (years) 50.63 ± 12.51 51.91 ± 13.81 / 0.49d
 Sex ratio (male/female) 2.33 (70/30) 7.50 (90/12) 0.311 (0.149–0.651) < 0.01a
 Educational level (<college) (%, n) 87.00 (87/100) 92.16 (94/102) 0.570 (0.225–1.440) 0.23a
 Smoker (%, n) 20.00% (20/100) 41.18% (42/102) 2.800 (1.493–5.252) < 0.01a
 Alcohol user (%, n) 28.00% (28/100) 49.02% (50/102) 2.473 (1.379–4.434) < 0.01a
 History of blood transfusion (%, n) 4.00% (4/100) 4.90% (5/102) 1.237 (0.322–4.747) 1.00b
 Hepatoxic medication (%, n) 11.00% (11/100) 13.73% (14/102) 1.287 (0.554–2.990) 0.56a
 Chronic liver diseases (%, n) 36.00% (36/100) 51.96% (53/102) 1.923 (1.094–3.378) 0.02a
 Hepatitis A 1.00% (1/100) 0 (0/102) 0.990 (0.971–1.010) 0.50b
 Hepatitis B 24.00% (24/100) 35.29% (36/102) 1.727 (0.936–3.188) 0.08a
 Hepatitis C 1.00% (1/100) 0 (0/102) 0.990 (0.971–1.010) 0.50b
 Liver cirrhosis 4.00% (4/100) 9.80% (10/102) 2.609 (0.790–8.612) 0.10a
 Fatty liver disease 4.00% (4/100) 7.84% (8/102) 2.043 (0.595–7.012) 0.25a
 Alcoholic liver disease 9.00% (9/100) 19.61% (20/102) 2.466 (1.063–5.720) 0.03a
 Hepatic carcinoma 1.00% (1/100) 2.94% (3/102) 3.000 (0.307–29.337) 0.62b
 Drug-induced hepatitis 1.00% (1/100) 0.98% (1/102) 0.980 (0.060–15.889) 1.00b
Chronic nonliver comorbidities (%, n)    / 0.75c
 No comorbidities 56.00% (56/100) 60.78% (62/102) /  
 1 comorbidity 27.00% (27/100) 23.53% (24/102) /  
 2 comorbidities 12.00% (12/100) 8.82% (9/102) /  
  ≥ 3 comorbidities 5.00% (5/100) 6.86% (7/102) /  
Disease progression
 Median days from onset to consultation 6 (0–39) 6 (0–24) / 0.93c
 Median days from onset to admission 7 (1–49) 7 (2–38) / 0.12c
 Median days from onset to confirmation 11.5 (4–54) 11 (4–43) / 0.75c
 Median days from onset to discharge 27 (9–71) 36.5 (14–111) / < 0.001c
 Days hospitalized 18 (5–46) 26 (7–108) / < 0.001c
  1. Notes: Non-severe cases denote mild and moderate cases; SD standard deviation, a = Chi-square test; b = Fisher test; c = Non-parametric test; and d = T test in P value column; “/” denotes not available