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Table 2 Xenotransplantations of pig organs with and without PCMV infection

From: Reduction of the survival time of pig xenotransplants by porcine cytomegalovirus

Pig organ (pig race) Genetic modification Recipient PCMV Survival time without PCMV in days (number of cases) Survival time with PCMV in days (number of cases) Comments concerning PCMV infection BaCMV References
Thymokidney, (Landrace) HDAF* Baboon (n = 6) Up-regulated in all animals except #4 No difference Intravascular coagulation syndrome in some animals, thrombocytopenia, ureteric necrosis in one animal In all animals except #5, activation in 3 animals, pneumonitis and death in one animal Mueller et al., 2002 [54], Gollackner et al., 2003 [55]
Thymokidney, kidney, thymus, heart
HDAF Baboon (n = 22) In all donors   11–32 (PCMV up-regulation in 15/22 animals)
7–27 (PCMV no upregulation in 7 animals)
Immunosuppressed PCMV positive animal: upregulation of PCMV Not investigated Mueller et al., 2004 [56]
Heterotopic heart (Landrace x Large White) HDAF Baboons (n = 9) 2 positive, 3 negative, 4 negative by early weaning 33 (4 early weaned) 53 (3 negative animals) 20 (2 positive animals) Consumptive coagulopathy All positive, no up-regulation due to ganciclovir Mueller et al., 2004 [57]
Thymokidney, kidney (MGH a miniature swíne) GalT-KO** Baboon (n = 21) 8 negative a, 10 positive, 3 negative after Caesarean deliveryb 48.4 (8 negative)b 53 (3 Caesarean delivery)c 14.1 (10 positive) Enhanced ICAM-1 and MHC class II expression in the transplant (endothelial cell activation) No BaCMV in one PCMV-negative animal Yamada et al., 2014 [58]
Kidney GalT-KO Cynomolgus monkeys (n = 8) 8 negative d, 5 positive e 28.7d 9.2e   Not applicable Sekijima et al., 2014 [59]
Liver (MGH a miniature swine) GalT-KO Baboons (n = 4)   5, 25, 29 8 Hemorrhagic necrosis, focal PCMV inclusion Not investigated Shah et al., 2017 [60]
  1. *HDAF human complement decay-accelerating factor, synonym CD55 **GalT-KO alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout; aMassachusetts General Hospital; bNaturally PCMV-negative; cAfter Caesarean delivery; dPigs from the Massachusetts General Hospital/Nippon Institute for Biological Science; ePigs from the Meji University