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Fig. 4 | Virology Journal

Fig. 4

From: Lymphatic endothelial cells promote productive and latent HIV infection in resting CD4+ T cells

Fig. 4

Latent viral infection in CD4+ resting T cells co-cultured with human lymphatic endothelial cells. Resting CD4+ T cells were cultured alone or with human lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). + and - indicate treatment with or without IFN-γ respectively in LEC. All T cells were infected with an HIV reporter virus expressing GFP 1 day after co-culture. On day 8 post-infection, GFP negative cells were sorted and cultured with or without PMA/Ionomycin and raltegravir for 2 days to reactivate latent virus while preventing de novo infection. Following 2 days of reactivation, %GFP+ cells were measured. a GFP expression levels in PMA/I stimulated and unstimulated resting T cells after sorting from LEC- co-cultures. b GFP expression comparisons in resting T cell alone, LEC+ and LEC- co-cultures with and without PMA/I stimulation. P values from Student’s T tests comparing PMA/I stimulated cells to their unstimulated counterparts were 6 × 10− 6, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively. Data shown are representative of three independent experiments yielding similar results. Samples were taken in quadruplicates and means+/− standard errors are plotted. *Student t-test; p < 0.05

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