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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data from 79 patients with CNS infection and enterovirus detection

From: Enterovirus serotypes in patients with central nervous system and respiratory infections in Viet Nam 1997–2010

  Children ≤15 years (n = 51) Adults > 15 years (n = 28) P valuec
Swab (n = 41) CSF (n = 10) CSF (n = 28)
Demographics Male (%) 29 (70.7) 3 (30) 18 (64.3) 0.078
Age (year) (median; IQR) 1 (1–3) 7 (1.8–10) 20 (17–29.5) ND
Discharge diagnosis Encephalitis (%) 30 (73.2) 4 (40) 1 (3.6) 0.012
Meningitis (%) 2 (4.9) 6 (60) 26 (92.9)
Othersb(%) 9 (22) 0 1 (3.6)
Clinical symptoms Fever 40 (97.6) 9 (90) 26 (92.9) 1.0
Day of illness (med: IQR) 4 (3–5) 2 (1.5–3.5) 2 (1–3) 0.699
Duration of hospitalization (med: IQR) 7 (2.5–12) 7 (6.5–10.5) 13 (5–15) 0.173
Meningeal signs (%) 4 (9.8) 4 (40) 20 (71.4) 0.127
Convulsions (%) 26 (63.4) 2 (20) 0 0.064
Focal neurology (%) 22 (53.7) 1 (10) 0 0.263
Limb weakness (%) 22 (53.7) 1 (10) 0 0.263
GCS < 9 (%) 25 (61) 1 (10) 1 (3.6) 0.462
Laboratory tests Blood white cell count (per mm3) [med: IQR] 12,300 16,800 9750 0.010
(8150–16,225) (14875–22,800) (7100–11,950)
  Blood neutrophil % (med: IQR) 53.15 (36–69.8) 80.8 (73–86.4) 78.35 (73.1–82.6) 0.713
  Blood glucose (mmol per litter) [med: IQR] 5.16 (4.0–7.8) 5.22 (3.8–6.5) 6.04 (5.17–7.1) 0.311
  CSF white cell counts per mm3 (med: IQR) 5 (1–45.5) 61 (3.5–172) 90.5 (27.25–197.5) 0.926
  CSF neutrophil % (med: IQR) 20 (11–30) 63 (37.5–67.5) 46 (27.8–78.8) 0.596
  CSF glucose (mmol per litter) [med: IQR] 3.5 (2.8–4.7) 3.74 (3.4–4.3) 3.5 (3.16–3.9) 0.380
  CSF protein (med: IQR) 0.2 (0.1–0.3) 0.42 (0.28–0.49) 0.5 (0.39–0. 7) 0.362
  Lactate (mmol per litter) [med: IQR] 2.09 (1.5–3) 2.35 (1.9–7.5) 2.45 (2.1–3.1) 1.00
  Evidence of other pathogensa in CSF (%) 13 (31.7) 1 (10) 3 (10.7) 1.0
Co-infectiona JEV (n) 9 1 0 NA
DENV (n) 4 0 0
Cytomegalovirus (n) [CMV] 0 0 2
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n) [MTB] 0 0 1
Outcome Death (%) 15 (36.6) 0 0 NA
  1. ND not determined, NA not applicable
  2. Note: aCo-infection included detection of human IgM (anti JEV and DENV) and viral DNA (CMV) in CSF, or bacterial growth (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in CSF culture
  3. bOther discharge diagnoses included sepsis (n = 5), dengue haemorrhagic fever (n = 1), colitis (n = 1), diarrhea (n = 1) metabolic disease (n = 1), and hepatitis (n = 1)
  4. cStatistical comparison between children and adults with EV detection in CSF